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dc.contributor.authorGovindarajan, Annette F.  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorKällström, Björn  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorSelander, Erik  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorÖstman, Carina  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorDahlgren, Thomas G.  Concept link
dc.date.accessioned2019-06-07T16:32:25Z
dc.date.available2019-06-07T16:32:25Z
dc.date.issued2019-05-13
dc.identifier.citationGovindarajan, A. F., Kallstrom, B., Selander, E., Ostrnan, C., & Dahlgren, T. G. (2019). The highly toxic and cryptogenic clinging jellyfish Gonionemus sp. (Hydrozoa, Limnomedusae) on the Swedish west coast. Peerj, 7, e6883en_US
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/1912/24219
dc.description© The Author(s), 2019. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Govindarajan, A. F., Kallstrom, B., Selander, E., Ostrnan, C., & Dahlgren, T. G. The highly toxic and cryptogenic clinging jellyfish Gonionemus sp. (Hydrozoa, Limnomedusae) on the Swedish west coast. Peerj, 7, (2019): e6883, doi:10.7717/peerj.6883.en_US
dc.description.abstractThe clinging jellyfish Gonionemus sp. is a small hydromedusa species known historically from the Swedish west coast but not reported in recent times. This species is thought to be native to the northwest Pacific where it is notorious for causing severe stings in humans and is considered invasive or cryptogenic elsewhere. This year, unlike in the past, severe stings in swimmers making contact with Gonionemus sp. medusae occurred in Swedish waters from a sheltered eelgrass bed in the inner Skagerrak archipelago. To the best of our knowledge, this is only the second sting record of Gonionemus sp. from the Northeast Atlantic—with the first record occurring off the Belgian coast in the 1970s. Stinging Gonionemus sp. medusae have also been recently reported from the northwestern Atlantic coast, where, like on the Swedish coast, stings were not reported in the past. We analyzed sea surface temperature data from the past 30 years and show that 2018 had an exceptionally cold spring followed by an exceptionally hot summer. It is suggested that the 2018 temperature anomalies contributed to the Swedish outbreak. An analysis of mitochondrial COI sequences showed that Swedish medusae belong to the same clade as those from toxic populations in the Sea of Japan and northwest Atlantic. Gonionemus sp. is particularly prone to human-mediated dispersal and we suggest that it is possible that this year’s outbreak is the result of anthropogenic factors either through a climate-driven northward range shift or an introduction via shipping activity. We examined medusa growth rates and details of medusa morphology including nematocysts. Two types of penetrating nematocysts: euryteles and b-mastigophores were observed, suggesting that Gonionemus sp. medusae are able to feed on hard-bodied organisms like copepods and cladocerans. Given the now-regular occurrence and regional spread of Gonionemus sp. in the northwest Atlantic, it seems likely that outbreaks in Sweden will continue. More information on its life cycle, dispersal mechanisms, and ecology are thus desirable.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipFunding was provided by the Swedish Research Council (VR) to Erik Selander “Signals in the Sea” and from the Faculty of Science of Uppsala University to Carina Östman. Funding for the DNA sequencing analysis was provided by the Kathleen M. and Peter E. Naktenis Family Foundation and the Borrego Foundation. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.en_US
dc.publisherPeerJen_US
dc.relation.urihttps://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.6883
dc.rightsAttribution 4.0 International*
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/*
dc.subjectSea grassen_US
dc.subjectZosteraen_US
dc.subjectTaxonomyen_US
dc.subjectBiogeographyen_US
dc.subjectClimate changeen_US
dc.subjectBurnen_US
dc.subjectNematocysten_US
dc.subjectUltrastructureen_US
dc.subjectMicroscopeen_US
dc.subjectTentacleen_US
dc.titleThe highly toxic and cryptogenic clinging jellyfish Gonionemus sp. (Hydrozoa, Limnomedusae) on the Swedish west coasten_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.identifier.doi10.7717/peerj.6883


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Attribution 4.0 International
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Attribution 4.0 International