Constraining evaporation rates based on large-scale sea surface transects of salinity or isotopic compositions
Churchill, James H.
MetadataShow full item record
Keywordair‐sea interaction; evaporation; semienclosed basins; salinity; stable isotopes; thermohaline circulation
A Lagrangian model is constructed for a surface column of initial height h(0) that propagates at an average speed u and is subject to excess (i.e., net) evaporation of q m/year. It is shown that these parameters combine to form an evaporation length, L = uh(0)/q, which provides an estimate for the distance the column must travel before evaporating completely. While these changes in the surface water level due to evaporation are compensated by entrainment of water into the overall column, the changes in either near‐surface salinity or isotopic compositions are retained and can be measured. Observations of surface salinity and isotopic compositions of δ18O and δD along 1,000‐ to 3,500‐km long transects are used to estimate values of L in the Red Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Indian Ocean, and Gulf Stream. The variations of salinity, δ18O and δD in all four basins are linear. As anticipated, the estimated value of L is smallest in the slowly moving and arid Red Sea and is greatest in the fast‐moving Gulf Stream.
Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2019. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans 124(2), (2019): 1322-1330, doi:10.1029/2018JC014106.
The publisher requires that this item be embargoed until 2019-07-26. Please check back after 2019-07-26.
Suggested CitationArticle: Berman, Hadar, Paldor, Nathan, Churchill, James H., Lazar, Boaz, "Constraining evaporation rates based on large-scale sea surface transects of salinity or isotopic compositions", Berman, H., Paldor, N., Churchill, J., & Lazar, B. (2019). Constraining evaporation rates based on large-scale sea surface transects of salinity or isotopic compositions. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans, 124(2), 1322-1330., DOI:10.1029/2018JC014106, https://hdl.handle.net/1912/24007
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
On sea surface salinity skin effect iInduced by evaporation and implications for remote sensing of ocean salinity Yu, Lisan (American Meteorological Society, 2010-01)The existence of a cool and salty sea surface skin under evaporation was first proposed by Saunders in 1967, but few efforts have since been made to perceive the salt component of the skin layer. With two salinity missions ...
Yu, Lisan; Jin, Xiangze; Josey, Simon A.; Lee, Tong; Kumar, Arun; Wen, Caihong; Xue, Yan (American Meteorological Society, 2017-05-02)This study provides an assessment of the uncertainty in ocean surface (OS) freshwater budgets and variability using evaporation E and precipitation P from 10 atmospheric reanalyses, two combined satellite-based E − P ...
Gimeno, Luis; Stohl, Andreas; Trigo, Ricardo M.; Dominguez, Francina; Yoshimura, Kei; Yu, Lisan; Drumond, Anita; Duran-Quesada, Ana Maria; Nieto, Raquel (American Geophysical Union, 2012-11-08)The most important sources of atmospheric moisture at the global scale are herein identified, both oceanic and terrestrial, and a characterization is made of how continental regions are influenced by water from different ...