Unique patterns and biogeochemical relevance of two-component sensing in marine bacteria.
Held, Noelle A.
McIlvin, Matthew R.
Moran, Dawn M.
Laub, Michael T.
Saito, Mak A.
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Keywordbiogeochemistry; cell signaling; gene regulation; marine microbiology; proteomics; regulatory network; two-component system
Two-component sensory (TCS) systems link microbial physiology to the environment and thus may play key roles in biogeochemical cycles. In this study, we surveyed the TCS systems of 328 diverse marine bacterial species. We identified lifestyle traits such as copiotrophy and diazotrophy that are associated with larger numbers of TCS system genes within the genome. We compared marine bacterial species with 1,152 reference bacterial species from a variety of habitats and found evidence of extra response regulators in marine genomes. Examining the location of TCS genes along the circular bacterial genome, we also found that marine bacteria have a large number of “orphan” genes, as well as many hybrid histidine kinases. The prevalence of “extra” response regulators, orphan genes, and hybrid TCS systems suggests that marine bacteria break with traditional understanding of how TCS systems operate. These trends suggest prevalent regulatory networking, which may allow coordinated physiological responses to multiple environmental signals and may represent a specific adaptation to the marine environment. We examine phylogenetic and lifestyle traits that influence the number and structure of two-component systems in the genome, finding, for example, that a lack of two-component systems is a hallmark of oligotrophy. Finally, in an effort to demonstrate the importance of TCS systems to marine biogeochemistry, we examined the distribution of Prochlorococcus/Synechococcus response regulator PMT9312_0717 in metaproteomes of the tropical South Pacific. We found that this protein’s abundance is related to phosphate concentrations, consistent with a putative role in phosphate regulation.
© The Author(s), 2019. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. The definitive version was published in mSystems 4(1), (2019): 4:e00317-18, doi:10.1128/mSystems.00317-18.
Suggested CitationHeld NA, McIlvin MR, Moran DM, Laub MT, Saito MA. (2019). Unique patterns and biogeochemical relevance of two-component sensing in marine bacteria. mSystems, 4:e00317-18.
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