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Three-dimensional beam pattern of regular sperm whale clicks confirms bent-horn hypothesis

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dc.contributor.author Zimmer, Walter M. X.
dc.contributor.author Tyack, Peter L.
dc.contributor.author Johnson, Mark P.
dc.contributor.author Madsen, Peter T.
dc.date.accessioned 2008-08-27T16:20:54Z
dc.date.available 2008-08-27T16:20:54Z
dc.date.issued 2005-03
dc.identifier.citation Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 117 (2005): 1473-1485 en
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/1912/2361
dc.description Author Posting. © Acoustical Society of America, 2005. This article is posted here by permission of Acoustical Society of America for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 117 (2005): 1473-1485, doi:10.1121/1.1828501. en
dc.description.abstract The three-dimensional beam pattern of a sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) tagged in the Ligurian Sea was derived using data on regular clicks from the tag and from hydrophones towed behind a ship circling the tagged whale. The tag defined the orientation of the whale, while sightings and beamformer data were used to locate the whale with respect to the ship. The existence of a narrow, forward-directed P1 beam with source levels exceeding 210 dBpeak re: 1 µPa at 1 m is confirmed. A modeled forward-beam pattern, that matches clicks >20° off-axis, predicts a directivity index of 26.7 dB and source levels of up to 229 dBpeak re: 1 µPa at 1 m. A broader backward-directed beam is produced by the P0 pulse with source levels near 200 dBpeak re: 1 µPa at 1 m and a directivity index of 7.4 dB. A low-frequency component with source levels near 190 dBpeak re: 1 µPa at 1 m is generated at the onset of the P0 pulse by air resonance. The results support the bent-horn model of sound production in sperm whales. While the sperm whale nose appears primarily adapted to produce an intense forward-directed sonar signal, less-directional click components convey information to conspecifics, and give rise to echoes from the seafloor and the surface, which may be useful for orientation during dives. en
dc.description.sponsorship This work was funded by grants from the Office of Naval Research Grants N00014-99-1-0819 and N00014-01-1-0705, and the Packard Foundation. en
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf
dc.language.iso en_US en
dc.publisher Acoustical Society of America en
dc.relation.uri http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1828501
dc.subject Bioacoustics en
dc.subject Biocommunications en
dc.subject Array signal processing en
dc.subject Echo en
dc.subject Hydrophones en
dc.subject Multidimensional signal processing en
dc.subject Underwater sound en
dc.subject Sonar signal processing en
dc.title Three-dimensional beam pattern of regular sperm whale clicks confirms bent-horn hypothesis en
dc.type Article en
dc.identifier.doi 10.1121/1.1828501


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