Off-axis effects on the multipulse structure of sperm whale usual clicks with implications for sound production
Zimmer, Walter M. X.
Madsen, Peter T.
Johnson, Mark P.
Tyack, Peter L.
MetadataShow full item record
Sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) produce multipulsed clicks with their hypertrophied nasal complex. The currently accepted view of the sound generation process is based on the click structure measured directly in front of, or behind, the whale where regular interpulse intervals (IPIs) are found between successive pulses in the click. Most sperm whales, however, are recorded with the whale in an unknown orientation with respect to the hydrophone where the multipulse structure and the IPI do not conform to a regular pulse pattern. By combining far-field recordings of usual clicks with acoustic and orientation information measured by a tag on the clicking whale, we analyzed clicks from known aspects to the whale. We show that a geometric model based on the bent horn theory for sound production can explain the varying off-axis multipulse structure. Some of the sound energy that is reflected off the frontal sac radiates directly into the water creating an intermediate pulse p1/2 seen in off-axis recordings. The powerful p1 sonar pulse exits the front of the junk as predicted by the bent-horn model, showing that the junk of the sperm whale nasal complex is both anatomically and functionally homologous to the melon of smaller toothed whales.
Author Posting. © Acoustical Society of America, 2005. This article is posted here by permission of Acoustical Society of America for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 118 (2005): 3337-3345, doi:10.1121/1.2082707.
Suggested CitationArticle: Zimmer, Walter M. X., Madsen, Peter T., Teloni, Valeria, Johnson, Mark P., Tyack, Peter L., "Off-axis effects on the multipulse structure of sperm whale usual clicks with implications for sound production", Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 118 (2005): 3337-3345, DOI:10.1121/1.2082707, https://hdl.handle.net/1912/2359
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Differences between sound scattering by weakly scattering spheres and finite-length cylinders with applications to sound scattering by zooplankton Stanton, Timothy K.; Wiebe, Peter H.; Chu, Dezhang (Acoustical Society of America, 1998-01)A modeling study was conducted to determine the conditions under which fluidlike zooplankton of the same volume but different shapes (spherical/cylindrical) have similar or dramatically different scattering properties. ...
Coffin, Allison B.; Zeddies, David G.; Fay, Richard R.; Brown, Andrew D.; Alderks, Peter W.; Bhandiwad, Ashwin A.; Mohr, Robert A.; Gray, Michael D.; Rogers, Peter H.; Sisneros, Joseph A. (2014-03)We investigated the roles of the swim bladder and the lateral line system in sound localization behavior by the plainfin midshipman fish (Porichthys notatus). Reproductive female midshipman underwent either surgical ...
Sound scattering by live zooplankton and micronekton : empirical studies with a dual-beam acoustical system Wiebe, Peter H.; Greene, Charles H.; Stanton, Timothy K.; Burczynski, Janusz (Acoustical Society of America, 1990-11)Measurements and analyses are presented of the backscattering of 420-kHz sound by 43 individual animals of representative zooplanktonic and micronektonic taxa. Direct measurements of an individual's target strength were ...