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Modeling acoustic propagation of airgun array pulses recorded on tagged sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus)

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dc.contributor.author DeRuiter, Stacy L.
dc.contributor.author Tyack, Peter L.
dc.contributor.author Lin, Ying-Tsong
dc.contributor.author Newhall, Arthur E.
dc.contributor.author Lynch, James F.
dc.contributor.author Miller, Patrick J. O.
dc.date.accessioned 2008-08-14T18:57:28Z
dc.date.available 2008-08-14T18:57:28Z
dc.date.issued 2006-12
dc.identifier.citation Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 120 (2006): 4100-4114 en
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/1912/2334
dc.description Author Posting. © Acoustical Society of America, 2006. This article is posted here by permission of Acoustical Society of America for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 120 (2006): 4100-4114, doi:10.1121/1.2359705. en
dc.description.abstract In 2002 and 2003, tagged sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) were experimentally exposed to airgun pulses in the Gulf of Mexico, with the tags providing acoustic recordings at measured ranges and depths. Ray trace and parabolic equation (PE) models provided information about sound propagation paths and accurately predicted time of arrival differences between multipath arrivals. With adequate environmental information, a broadband acoustic PE model predicted the relative levels of multipath arrivals recorded on the tagged whales. However, lack of array source signature data limited modeling of absolute received levels. Airguns produce energy primarily below 250 Hz, with spectrum levels about 20–40 dB lower at 1 kHz. Some arrivals recorded near the surface in 2002 had energy predominantly above 500 Hz; a surface duct in the 2002 sound speed profile helps explain this effect, and the beampattern of the source array also indicates an increased proportion of high-frequency sound at near-horizontal launch angles. These findings indicate that airguns sometimes expose animals to measurable sound energy above 250 Hz, and demonstrate the influences of source and environmental parameters on characteristics of received airgun pulses. The study also illustrates that on-axis source levels and simple geometric spreading inadequately describe airgun pulse propagation and the extent of exposure zones. en
dc.description.sponsorship Funding for this work was provided by the Office of Naval Research, the U.S. Department of the Interior Minerals Management Service Cooperative Agreements Nos. 1435-01-02- CA-85186 and NA87RJ0445, and the Industry Research Funding Coalition. S.L.D.R. was supported by a National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship. en
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf
dc.language.iso en_US en
dc.publisher Acoustical Society of America en
dc.relation.uri http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.2359705
dc.subject Underwater sound en
dc.subject Bioacoustics en
dc.subject Acoustic intensity en
dc.subject Acoustic waveguides en
dc.subject Acoustic pulses en
dc.subject Parabolic equations en
dc.subject Time-of-arrival estimation en
dc.subject Acoustic arrays en
dc.title Modeling acoustic propagation of airgun array pulses recorded on tagged sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) en
dc.type Article en
dc.identifier.doi 10.1121/1.2359705


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