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dc.contributor.authorJackson, P. Ryan  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorGarcia, Carlos M.  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorOberg, Kevin A.  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorJohnson, Kevin K.  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorGarcia, Marcelo H.  Concept link
dc.date.accessioned2008-06-05T16:03:58Z
dc.date.available2008-06-05T16:03:58Z
dc.date.issued2008-03
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/1912/2250
dc.descriptionAuthor Posting. © Elsevier B.V., 2008. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of Elsevier B.V. for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Science of The Total Environment 401 (2008): 130-143, doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2008.04.011.en
dc.description.abstractBidirectional flows in a river system can occur under stratified flow conditions and in addition to creating significant errors in discharge estimates, the upstream propagating currents are capable of transporting contaminants and affecting water quality. Detailed field observations of bidirectional flows were made in the Chicago River in Chicago, Illinois in the winter of 2005-06. Using multiple acoustic Doppler current profilers simultaneously with a water-quality profiler, the formation of upstream propagating density currents within the Chicago River both as an underflow and an overflow was observed on three occasions. Density differences driving the flow primarily arise from salinity differences between intersecting branches of the Chicago River, whereas water temperature is secondary in the creation of these currents. Deicing salts appear to be the primary source of salinity in the North Branch of the Chicago River, entering the waterway through direct runoff and effluent from a wastewater-treatment plant in a large metropolitan area primarily served by combined sewers. Water-quality assessments of the Chicago River may underestimate (or overestimate) the impairment of the river because standard water-quality monitoring practices do not account for density-driven underflows (or overflows). Chloride concentrations near the riverbed can significantly exceed concentrations at the river surface during underflows indicating that full-depth parameter profiles are necessary for accurate water-quality assessments in urban environments where application of deicing salt is common.en
dc.description.sponsorshipThe authors greatly appreciate the support provided by USGS, Office of Surface Water (Hydroacoustics Program), the Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago (MWRDGC), the USGS Illinois Water Science Center.en
dc.format.mimetypeapplication/pdf
dc.language.isoen_USen
dc.relation.urihttps://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2008.04.011
dc.subjectDensity currenten
dc.subjectGravity currenten
dc.subjectBidirectional flowen
dc.subjectChlorideen
dc.subjectDeicing salten
dc.subjectChicago Riveren
dc.titleDensity currents in the Chicago River : characterization, effects on water quality, and potential sourcesen
dc.typePreprinten


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