Density currents in the Chicago River : characterization, effects on water quality, and potential sources
Jackson, P. Ryan
Garcia, Carlos M.
Oberg, Kevin A.
Johnson, Kevin K.
Garcia, Marcelo H.
MetadataShow full item record
Bidirectional flows in a river system can occur under stratified flow conditions and in addition to creating significant errors in discharge estimates, the upstream propagating currents are capable of transporting contaminants and affecting water quality. Detailed field observations of bidirectional flows were made in the Chicago River in Chicago, Illinois in the winter of 2005-06. Using multiple acoustic Doppler current profilers simultaneously with a water-quality profiler, the formation of upstream propagating density currents within the Chicago River both as an underflow and an overflow was observed on three occasions. Density differences driving the flow primarily arise from salinity differences between intersecting branches of the Chicago River, whereas water temperature is secondary in the creation of these currents. Deicing salts appear to be the primary source of salinity in the North Branch of the Chicago River, entering the waterway through direct runoff and effluent from a wastewater-treatment plant in a large metropolitan area primarily served by combined sewers. Water-quality assessments of the Chicago River may underestimate (or overestimate) the impairment of the river because standard water-quality monitoring practices do not account for density-driven underflows (or overflows). Chloride concentrations near the riverbed can significantly exceed concentrations at the river surface during underflows indicating that full-depth parameter profiles are necessary for accurate water-quality assessments in urban environments where application of deicing salt is common.
Author Posting. © Elsevier B.V., 2008. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of Elsevier B.V. for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Science of The Total Environment 401 (2008): 130-143, doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2008.04.011.
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Garcia, Hernan E.; Cosca, Cathy; Kozyr, Alex; Mayorga, Emilio; Chandler, Cynthia L.; Thomas, Robert W.; O’Brien, Kevin; Appeltans, Ward; Hankin, Steve; Newton, Jan A.; Gutierrez, Angelica; Gattuso, Jean-Pierre; Hansson, Lina; Zweng, Melissa; Pfeil, Benjamin (The Oceanography Society, 2015-06)Ocean acidification (OA) refers to the general decrease in pH of the global ocean as a result of absorbing anthropogenic CO2 emitted in the atmosphere since preindustrial times (Sabine et al., 2004). There is, however, ...
Rate zonal density gradient ultracentrifugation analysis of repair of radiation damage to the folded chromosome of Escherichia coli Ulmer, Kevin M. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1978-04)The structure of the membrane-free nucleoid of Escherichia coli and of unfolded chromosomal DNA was investigated by sedimentation on neutral sucrose gradients after irradiation with 60Co gamma-rays and ultraviolet light ...
Leaf litter nutrient uptake in an intermittent blackwater river : influence of tree species and associated biotic and abiotic drivers Mehring, Andrew S.; Kuehn, Kevin A.; Thompson, Aaron; Pringle, Catherine M.; Rosemond, Amy D.; First, Matthew R.; Lowrance, R. Richard; Vellidis, George (2014-12)Organic matter may sequester nutrients as it decomposes, increasing in total N and P mass via multiple uptake pathways. During leaf litter decomposition, microbial biomass and accumulated inorganic materials immobilize and ...