Chromosome malorientations after meiosis II arrest cause nondisjunction
Janicke, Marie A.
LaFountain, James R.
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This study investigated the basis of meiosis II nondisjunction. Cold arrest induced a fraction of meiosis II crane fly spermatocytes to form (n + 1) and (n – 1) daughters during recovery. Live-cell liquid crystal polarized light microscope imaging showed nondisjunction was caused by chromosome malorientation. Whereas amphitely (sister kinetochore fibers to opposite poles) is normal, cold recovery induced anaphase syntely (sister fibers to the same pole) and merotely (fibers to both poles from 1 kinetochore). Maloriented chromosomes had stable metaphase positions near the equator or between the equator and a pole. Syntelics were at the spindle periphery at metaphase; their sisters disconnected at anaphase and moved all the way to a centrosome, as their strongly birefringent kinetochore fibers shortened. The kinetochore fibers of merotelics shortened little if any during anaphase, making anaphase lag common. If one fiber of a merotelic was more birefringent than the other, the less birefringent fiber lengthened with anaphase spindle elongation, often permitting inclusion of merotelics in a daughter nucleus. Meroamphitely (near amphitely but with some merotely) caused sisters to move in opposite directions. In contrast, syntely and merosyntely (near syntely but with some merotely) resulted in nondisjunction. Anaphase malorientations were more frequent after longer arrests, with particularly long arrests required to induce syntely and merosyntely.
Author Posting. © American Society for Cell Biology, 2007. This article is posted here by permission of American Society for Cell Biology for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Molecular Biology of the Cell 18 (2007): 1645-1656, doi:10.1091/mbc.E06-10-0963.