Seismic and gravitational studies of melting in the mantle's thermal boundary layers


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dc.contributor.author Van Ark, Emily M.
dc.coverage.spatial Hawaii-Emperor seamount chain
dc.coverage.spatial Endeavour Segment
dc.coverage.spatial Juan de Fuca
dc.date.accessioned 2007-06-29T16:10:12Z
dc.date.available 2007-06-29T16:10:12Z
dc.date.issued 2007-06
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/1912/1730
dc.description Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution June 2007 en
dc.description.abstract This thesis presents three studies which apply geophysical tools to the task of better understanding mantle melting phenomena at the upper and lower boundaries of the mantle. The first study uses seafloor bathymetry and small variations in the gravitational acceleration over the Hawaii-Emperor seamount chain to constrain the changes in the igneous production of the hot spot melting in the mantle which has created these structures over the past 80 My. The second study uses multichannel seismic reflection data to constrain the location and depth of axial magma chambers at the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca spreading ridge, and then correlates these magma chamber locations with features of the hydrothermal heat extraction system in the upper crust such as microseismicity caused by thermal cracking and high temperature hydrothermal vent systems observed on the seafloor. The third study uses two-dimensional global pseudospectral seismic wave propagation modeling to characterize the sensitivity of the SPdKS seismic phase to two-dimensional, finite-width ultra-low velocity zones (ULVZs) at the core-mantle boundary. Together these three studies highlight the dynamic complexities of melting in the mantle while offering new tools to understand that complexity. en
dc.description.sponsorship This thesis was funded by a National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship, NSF grant OCE-0002551 to theWoods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), the WHOI Academic Programs Office, the Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Science Department at MIT, and by the WHOI Deep Ocean Exploration Institute. en
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf
dc.language.iso en_US en
dc.publisher Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution en
dc.relation.ispartofseries WHOI Theses en
dc.subject Ocean bottom en_US
dc.subject Core-mantle boundary en_US
dc.title Seismic and gravitational studies of melting in the mantle's thermal boundary layers en
dc.type Thesis en
dc.identifier.doi 10.1575/1912/1730

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