The biology and philosophy of adaptation
Hulburt, Edward M.
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A logico-linguistic analysis is presented first, in which the symbolization of being adapted, having an adaptation, and having adaptedness is explained. Next the linguistic-realistic divide is portrayed. This is explained as ‘adapted’ the word being true of some ‘x’ and ‘adapted’ the word referring to an external entity adapted. The external entity adapted is true of some real organism x, and this organism exemplifies the property of being adapted. Finally, the external world of properties is portrayed. Thus the property of overwintering in angiosperms by bare limbs, seeds, and underground parts dictates winter adaptedness; the property of spring-summer growth of leaves, of annual plants and of above-ground parts dictates summer adaptedness. Also the property of overwintering in diapause insects and in hibernating mammals and southern flying birds dictates winter adaptedness, while the property of spring-summer growth and activity of non-diapause insects, of non-hibernating mammals, and northern mating birds dictate summer adaptedness. And year-round functionality dictates year-round adaptedness and year-round non-functionality dictates year-round non-adaptedness, exemplifications of the first pair being in non-hibernating mammals and of the second pair being in cold-blooded vertebrates and gymnosperms.