Now showing items 85-104 of 262

  • Global economic effects of changes in crops, pasture, and forests due to changing climate, carbon dioxide, and ozone 

    Reilly, John M.; Paltsev, S.; Felzer, Benjamin S.; Wang, X.; Kicklighter, David W.; Melillo, Jerry M.; Prinn, Ronald G.; Sarofim, Marcus C.; Sokolov, Andrei P.; Wang, C. (2006-01)
    Multiple environmental changes will have consequences for global vegetation. To the extent that crop yields and pasture and forest productivity are affected there can be important economic consequences. We examine the ...
  • Global N removal by freshwater aquatic systems using a spatially distributed, within-basin approach 

    Wollheim, Wilfred M.; Vorosmarty, Charles J.; Bouwman, A. F.; Green, Pamela; Harrison, John A.; Linder, Ernst; Peterson, Bruce J.; Seitzinger, Sybil P.; Syvitski, James P. M. (American Geophysical Union, 2008-06-20)
    We explored the role of aquatic systems in the global N cycle using a spatially distributed, within-basin, aquatic nitrogen (N) removal model, implemented within the Framework for Aquatic Modeling in the Earth System ...
  • The green algal underground : evolutionary secrets of desert cells 

    Cardon, Zoe G.; Gray, Dennis W.; Lewis, Louise A. (American Institute of Biological Sciences, 2008-02)
    Microscopic, unicellular, free-living green algae are found in desert microbiotic crusts worldwide. Although morphologically simple, green algae in desert crusts have recently been found to be extraordinarily diverse, with ...
  • Greening China naturally 

    Cao, Shixiong; Sun, Ge; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Chen, Liding; Feng, Qi; Fu, Bojie; McNulty, Steve; Shankman, David; Tang, Jianwu; Wang, Yanhui; Wei, Xiaohua (2011-04)
    China leads the world in afforestation, and is one of the few countries whose forested area is increasing. However, this massive ‘‘greening’’ effort has been less effective than expected; afforestation has sometimes produced ...
  • Heterotrophic respiration in disturbed forests : a review with examples from North America 

    Harmon, Mark E.; Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Tang, Jianwu; Vargas, Rodrigo (American Geophysical Union, 2011-05-14)
    Heterotrophic respiration (RH) is a major process releasing carbon to the atmosphere and is essential to understanding carbon dynamics in terrestrial ecosystems. Here we review what is known about this flux as related to ...
  • High particle export over the continental shelf of the west Antarctic Peninsula 

    Buesseler, Ken O.; McDonnell, Andrew M. P.; Schofield, Oscar M. E.; Steinberg, Deborah K.; Ducklow, Hugh W. (American Geophysical Union, 2010-11-24)
    Drifting cylindrical traps and the flux proxy 234Th indicate more than an order of magnitude higher sinking fluxes of particulate carbon and 234Th in January 2009 than measured by a time-series conical trap used regularly ...
  • Historical and idealized climate model experiments : an intercomparison of Earth system models of intermediate complexity 

    Eby, Michael; Weaver, Andrew J.; Alexander, K.; Zickfeld, K.; Abe-Ouchi, A.; Cimatoribus, A. A.; Crespin, E.; Drijfhout, S. S.; Edwards, N. R.; Eliseev, A. V.; Feulner, G.; Fichefet, T.; Forest, C. E.; Goosse, H.; Holden, P. B.; Joos, Fortunat; Kawamiya, M.; Kicklighter, David W.; Kienert, H.; Matsumoto, K.; Mokhov, I. I.; Monier, Erwan; Olsen, S. M.; Pedersen, J. O. P.; Perrette, M.; Philippon-Berthier, G.; Ridgwell, Andy; Schlosser, A.; Schneider von Deimling, T.; Shaffer, G.; Smith, R. S.; Spahni, R.; Sokolov, Andrei P.; Steinacher, M.; Tachiiri, K.; Tokos, K.; Yoshimori, M.; Zeng, Ning; Zhao, F. (Copernicus Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union, 2013-05-16)
    Both historical and idealized climate model experiments are performed with a variety of Earth system models of intermediate complexity (EMICs) as part of a community contribution to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate ...
  • Historical carbon emissions and uptake from the agricultural frontier of the Brazilian Amazon 

    Galford, Gillian L.; Melillo, Jerry M.; Kicklighter, David W.; Mustard, John F.; Cronin, Timothy W.; Cerri, Carlos E. P.; Cerri, Carlos C. (Ecological Society of America, 2011-04)
    Tropical ecosystems play a large and complex role in the global carbon cycle. Clearing of natural ecosystems for agriculture leads to large pulses of CO2 to the atmosphere from terrestrial biomass. Concurrently, the remaining ...
  • Home site advantage in two long-lived arctic plant species : results from two 30-year reciprocal transplant studies 

    Bennington, Cynthia C.; Fetcher, Ned; Vavrek, Milan C.; Shaver, Gaius R.; Cummings, Kelli J.; McGraw, James B. (2012-03-30)
    Reciprocal transplant experiments designed to quantify genetic and environmental effects on phenotype are powerful tools for the study of local adaptation. For long-lived species, especially those in habitats with short ...
  • Impacts of extreme winter warming events on litter decomposition in a sub-Arctic heathland 

    Bokhorst, Stef; Bjerke, Jarle W.; Melillo, Jerry M.; Callaghan, Terry V.; Phoenix, Gareth K. (2009-12-17)
    Arctic climate change is expected to lead to a greater frequency of extreme winter warming events. During these events, temperatures rapidly increase to well above 0ºC for a number of days, which can lead to snow melt ...
  • Impacts of ozone on trees and crops 

    Felzer, Benjamin S.; Cronin, Timothy W.; Reilly, John M.; Melillo, Jerry M.; Wang, Xiaodong (2007-07-05)
    In this review article, we explore how surface-level ozone affects trees and crops with special emphasis on consequences for productivity and carbon sequestration. Vegetation exposure to ozone reduces photosynthesis, ...
  • The impacts of recent permafrost thaw on land–atmosphere greenhouse gas exchange 

    Hayes, Daniel J.; Kicklighter, David W.; McGuire, A. David; Chen, Min; Zhuang, Qianlai; Yuan, Fengming; Melillo, Jerry M.; Wullschleger, Stan D. (IOP Publishing, 2014-04-06)
    Permafrost thaw and the subsequent mobilization of carbon (C) stored in previously frozen soil organic matter (SOM) have the potential to be a strong positive feedback to climate. As the northern permafrost region experiences ...
  • Impacts of rice varieties and management on yield-scaled greenhouse gas emissions from rice fields in China : a meta-analysis 

    Zheng, H.; Huang, H.; Yao, L.; Liu, J.; He, H.; Tang, Jianwu (Copernicus Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union, 2014-07-10)
    Increasing numbers of studies have suggested that a comprehensive assessment of the impacts of cropping practices on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per unit yield (yield-scaled), rather than by land area (area-scaled), is ...
  • Importance of carbon-nitrogen interactions and ozone on ecosystem hydrology during the 21st century 

    Felzer, Benjamin S.; Cronin, Timothy W.; Melillo, Jerry M.; Kicklighter, David W.; Schlosser, C. Adam (American Geophysical Union, 2009-03-18)
    There is evidence that increasing CO2 concentrations have reduced evapotranspiration and increased runoff through reductions in stomatal conductance during the twentieth century. While this process will continue to counteract ...
  • The importance of dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) in the nitrogen cycle of coastal ecosystems 

    Giblin, Anne E.; Tobias, Craig R.; Song, Bongkeun; Weston, Nathaniel; Banta, Gary T.; Rivera-Monroy, Victor H. (The Oceanography Society, 2013-09)
    Until recently, it was believed that biological assimilation and gaseous nitrogen (N) loss through denitrification were the two major fates of nitrate entering or produced within most coastal ecosystems. Denitrification ...
  • Importance of recent shifts in soil thermal dynamics on growing season length, productivity, and carbon sequestration in terrestrial high-latitude ecosystems 

    Euskirchen, E. S.; McGuire, A. David; Kicklighter, David W.; Zhuang, Qianlai; Clein, Joy S.; Dargaville, R. J.; Dye, D. G.; Kimball, John S.; McDonald, Kyle C.; Melillo, Jerry M.; Romanovsky, V. E.; Smith, N. V. (2005-10-07)
    In terrestrial high-latitude regions, observations indicate recent changes in snow cover, permafrost, and soil freeze-thaw transitions due to climate change. These modifications may result in temporal shifts in the growing ...
  • Incident radiation and the allocation of nitrogen within Arctic plant canopies : implications for predicting gross primary productivity 

    Street, Lorna E.; Shaver, Gaius R.; Rastetter, Edward B.; van Wijk, Mark T.; Kaye, Brooke A.; Williams, Mathew (2012-01)
    Arctic vegetation is characterized by high spatial variability in plant functional type (PFT) composition and gross primary productivity (P). Despite this variability, the two main drivers of P in sub-Arctic tundra are ...
  • Increasing importance of small phytoplankton in a warmer ocean 

    Moran, Xose Anxelu G.; Lopez-Urrutia, Angel; Calvo-Diaz, Alejandra; Li, William K. W. (2009-03-19)
    The macroecological relationships between marine phytoplankton total cell density, community size structure and temperature have lacked a theoretical explanation. The tiniest members of this planktonic group comprise ...
  • Increasing river discharge in the Eurasian Arctic : consideration of dams, permafrost thaw, and fires as potential agents of change 

    McClelland, James W.; Holmes, Robert M.; Peterson, Bruce J.; Stieglitz, Marc (American Geophysical Union, 2004-09-17)
    Discharge from Eurasian rivers to the Arctic Ocean has increased significantly in recent decades, but the reason for this trend remains unclear. Increased net atmospheric moisture transport from lower to higher latitudes ...
  • Information technology and libraries 

    Melillo, Jerry M. (IAMSLIC, 2000)