Now showing items 88-107 of 288

    • Food benefit and climate warming potential of nitrogen fertilizer uses in China 

      Tian, Hanqin; Lu, Chaoqun; Melillo, Jerry M.; Ren, Wei; Huang, Yao; Xu, Xiaofeng; Liu, Mingliang; Zhang, Chi; Chen, Guangsheng; Pan, Shufen; Liu, Jiyuan; Reilly, John M. (IOP Publishing, 2012-10-31)
      Chemical nitrogen (N) fertilizer has long been used to help meet the increasing food demands in China, the top N fertilizer consumer in the world. Growing concerns have been raised on the impacts of N fertilizer uses on ...
    • The footprint of Alaskan tundra fires during the past half-century : implications for surface properties and radiative forcing 

      Rocha, Adrian V.; Loranty, Michael M.; Higuera, Philip E.; Mack, Michelle C.; Hu, Feng Sheng; Jones, Benjamin M.; Breen, Amy L.; Rastetter, Edward B.; Goetz, Scott J.; Shaver, Gaius R. (IOP Publishing, 2012-12-19)
      Recent large and frequent fires above the Alaskan arctic circle have forced a reassessment of the ecological and climatological importance of fire in arctic tundra ecosystems. Here we provide a general overview of the ...
    • Forecasting effects of sea-level rise and windstorms on coastal and inland ecosystems 

      Hopkinson, Charles S.; Lugo, Ariel E.; Alber, Merryl; Covich, Alan P.; Van Bloem, Skip J. (Ecological Society of America, 2008-06)
      We identify a continental-scale network of sites to evaluate how two aspects of climate change – sea-level rise and intensification of windstorms – will influence the structure, function, and capacity of coastal and inland ...
    • A framework for quantifying the magnitude and variability of community responses to global change drivers 

      Avolio, Meghan L.; La Pierre, Kimberly J.; Houseman, Gregory R.; Koerner, Sally E.; Grman, Emily; Isbell, Forest; Johnson, David S.; Wilcox, Kevin R. (John Wiley & Sons, 2015-12-21)
      A major challenge in global change ecology is to predict the trajectory and magnitude of community change in response to global change drivers (GCDs). Here, we present a new framework that not only increases the predictive ...
    • A framework to assess biogeochemical response to ecosystem disturbance using nutrient partitioning ratios 

      Kranabetter, J. Marty; McLauchlan, Kendra K.; Enders, Sara K.; Fraterrigo, Jennifer M.; Higuera, Philip E.; Morris, Jesse L.; Rastetter, Edward B.; Barnes, Rebecca T.; Buma, Brian; Gavin, Daniel; Gerhart, Laci M.; Gillson, Lindsey; Hietz, Peter; Mack, Michelle C.; McNeil, Brenden; Perakis, Steven S. (2015-11)
      Disturbances affect almost all terrestrial ecosystems, but it has been difficult to identify general principles regarding these influences. To improve our understanding of the long-term consequences of disturbance on ...
    • The freshwater system west of the Antarctic Peninsula : spatial and temporal changes 

      Meredith, Michael P.; Venables, Hugh J.; Clarke, Andrew; Ducklow, Hugh W.; Erickson, Matthew; Leng, Melanie J.; Lenaerts, Jan T. M.; van den Broeke, Michiel R. (American Meteorological Society, 2013-03-01)
      Climate change west of the Antarctic Peninsula is the most rapid of anywhere in the Southern Hemisphere, with associated changes in the rates and distributions of freshwater inputs to the ocean. Here, results from the first ...
    • Future effects of ozone on carbon sequestration and climate change policy using a global biogeochemical model 

      Felzer, Benjamin S.; Reilly, John M.; Melillo, Jerry M.; Kicklighter, David W.; Sarofim, Marcus C.; Wang, C.; Prinn, Ronald G.; Zhuang, Qianlai (2004-10-29)
      Exposure of plants to ozone inhibits photosynthesis and therefore reduces vegetation production and carbon sequestration. The reduced carbon storage would then require further reductions in fossil fuel emissions to meet ...
    • Global economic effects of changes in crops, pasture, and forests due to changing climate, carbon dioxide, and ozone 

      Reilly, John M.; Paltsev, S.; Felzer, Benjamin S.; Wang, X.; Kicklighter, David W.; Melillo, Jerry M.; Prinn, Ronald G.; Sarofim, Marcus C.; Sokolov, Andrei P.; Wang, C. (2006-01)
      Multiple environmental changes will have consequences for global vegetation. To the extent that crop yields and pasture and forest productivity are affected there can be important economic consequences. We examine the ...
    • Global N removal by freshwater aquatic systems using a spatially distributed, within-basin approach 

      Wollheim, Wilfred M.; Vorosmarty, Charles J.; Bouwman, A. F.; Green, Pamela; Harrison, John A.; Linder, Ernst; Peterson, Bruce J.; Seitzinger, Sybil P.; Syvitski, James P. M. (American Geophysical Union, 2008-06-20)
      We explored the role of aquatic systems in the global N cycle using a spatially distributed, within-basin, aquatic nitrogen (N) removal model, implemented within the Framework for Aquatic Modeling in the Earth System ...
    • The green algal underground : evolutionary secrets of desert cells 

      Cardon, Zoe G.; Gray, Dennis W.; Lewis, Louise A. (American Institute of Biological Sciences, 2008-02)
      Microscopic, unicellular, free-living green algae are found in desert microbiotic crusts worldwide. Although morphologically simple, green algae in desert crusts have recently been found to be extraordinarily diverse, with ...
    • Greening China naturally 

      Cao, Shixiong; Sun, Ge; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Chen, Liding; Feng, Qi; Fu, Bojie; McNulty, Steve; Shankman, David; Tang, Jianwu; Wang, Yanhui; Wei, Xiaohua (2011-04)
      China leads the world in afforestation, and is one of the few countries whose forested area is increasing. However, this massive ‘‘greening’’ effort has been less effective than expected; afforestation has sometimes produced ...
    • Heterotrophic respiration in disturbed forests : a review with examples from North America 

      Harmon, Mark E.; Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Tang, Jianwu; Vargas, Rodrigo (American Geophysical Union, 2011-05-14)
      Heterotrophic respiration (RH) is a major process releasing carbon to the atmosphere and is essential to understanding carbon dynamics in terrestrial ecosystems. Here we review what is known about this flux as related to ...
    • High particle export over the continental shelf of the west Antarctic Peninsula 

      Buesseler, Ken O.; McDonnell, Andrew M. P.; Schofield, Oscar M. E.; Steinberg, Deborah K.; Ducklow, Hugh W. (American Geophysical Union, 2010-11-24)
      Drifting cylindrical traps and the flux proxy 234Th indicate more than an order of magnitude higher sinking fluxes of particulate carbon and 234Th in January 2009 than measured by a time-series conical trap used regularly ...
    • Historical and idealized climate model experiments : an intercomparison of Earth system models of intermediate complexity 

      Eby, Michael; Weaver, Andrew J.; Alexander, K.; Zickfeld, K.; Abe-Ouchi, A.; Cimatoribus, A. A.; Crespin, E.; Drijfhout, S. S.; Edwards, N. R.; Eliseev, A. V.; Feulner, G.; Fichefet, T.; Forest, C. E.; Goosse, H.; Holden, P. B.; Joos, Fortunat; Kawamiya, M.; Kicklighter, David W.; Kienert, H.; Matsumoto, K.; Mokhov, I. I.; Monier, Erwan; Olsen, S. M.; Pedersen, J. O. P.; Perrette, M.; Philippon-Berthier, G.; Ridgwell, Andy; Schlosser, A.; Schneider von Deimling, T.; Shaffer, G.; Smith, R. S.; Spahni, R.; Sokolov, Andrei P.; Steinacher, M.; Tachiiri, K.; Tokos, K.; Yoshimori, M.; Zeng, Ning; Zhao, F. (Copernicus Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union, 2013-05-16)
      Both historical and idealized climate model experiments are performed with a variety of Earth system models of intermediate complexity (EMICs) as part of a community contribution to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate ...
    • Historical carbon emissions and uptake from the agricultural frontier of the Brazilian Amazon 

      Galford, Gillian L.; Melillo, Jerry M.; Kicklighter, David W.; Mustard, John F.; Cronin, Timothy W.; Cerri, Carlos E. P.; Cerri, Carlos C. (Ecological Society of America, 2011-04)
      Tropical ecosystems play a large and complex role in the global carbon cycle. Clearing of natural ecosystems for agriculture leads to large pulses of CO2 to the atmosphere from terrestrial biomass. Concurrently, the remaining ...
    • Home site advantage in two long-lived arctic plant species : results from two 30-year reciprocal transplant studies 

      Bennington, Cynthia C.; Fetcher, Ned; Vavrek, Milan C.; Shaver, Gaius R.; Cummings, Kelli J.; McGraw, James B. (2012-03-30)
      Reciprocal transplant experiments designed to quantify genetic and environmental effects on phenotype are powerful tools for the study of local adaptation. For long-lived species, especially those in habitats with short ...
    • Impacts of extreme winter warming events on litter decomposition in a sub-Arctic heathland 

      Bokhorst, Stef; Bjerke, Jarle W.; Melillo, Jerry M.; Callaghan, Terry V.; Phoenix, Gareth K. (2009-12-17)
      Arctic climate change is expected to lead to a greater frequency of extreme winter warming events. During these events, temperatures rapidly increase to well above 0ºC for a number of days, which can lead to snow melt ...
    • Impacts of ozone on trees and crops 

      Felzer, Benjamin S.; Cronin, Timothy W.; Reilly, John M.; Melillo, Jerry M.; Wang, Xiaodong (2007-07-05)
      In this review article, we explore how surface-level ozone affects trees and crops with special emphasis on consequences for productivity and carbon sequestration. Vegetation exposure to ozone reduces photosynthesis, ...
    • The impacts of recent permafrost thaw on land–atmosphere greenhouse gas exchange 

      Hayes, Daniel J.; Kicklighter, David W.; McGuire, A. David; Chen, Min; Zhuang, Qianlai; Yuan, Fengming; Melillo, Jerry M.; Wullschleger, Stan D. (IOP Publishing, 2014-04-06)
      Permafrost thaw and the subsequent mobilization of carbon (C) stored in previously frozen soil organic matter (SOM) have the potential to be a strong positive feedback to climate. As the northern permafrost region experiences ...
    • Impacts of rice varieties and management on yield-scaled greenhouse gas emissions from rice fields in China : a meta-analysis 

      Zheng, H.; Huang, H.; Yao, L.; Liu, J.; He, H.; Tang, Jianwu (Copernicus Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union, 2014-07-10)
      Increasing numbers of studies have suggested that a comprehensive assessment of the impacts of cropping practices on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per unit yield (yield-scaled), rather than by land area (area-scaled), is ...