Teredinibacter turnerae gen. nov., sp. nov., a dinitrogen-fixing, cellulolytic, endosymbiotic c-proteobacterium isolated from the gills of wood-boring molluscs (Bivalvia: Teredinidae)
Distel, Daniel L.
Franks, Diana G.
Waterbury, John B.
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A cellulolytic, dinitrogen-fixing bacterium isolated from the gill tissue of a wood-boring mollusc (shipworm) Lyrodus pedicellatus of the bivalve family Teredinidae and 58 additional strains with similar properties, isolated from gills of 24 bivalve species representing 9 of 14 genera of Teredinidae, are described. The cells are Gram-negative, rigid, rods (0<4–0<6x3–6 lm) that bear a single polar flagellum. All isolates are capable of chemoheterotrophic growth in a simple mineral medium supplemented with cellulose as a sole source of carbon and energy. Xylan, pectin, carboxymethylcellulose, cellobiose and a variety of sugars and organic acids also support growth. Growth requires addition of combined nitrogen when cultures are vigorously aerated, but all isolates fix dinitrogen under microaerobic conditions. The pH, temperature and salinity optima for growth were determined for six isolates and are approximately 8<5, 30–35 °C and 0<3 M NaCl respectively. The isolates are marine. In addition to NaCl, growth requires elevated concentrations of Ca2M and Mg2M that reflect the chemistry of seawater. The DNA GMC content ranged from 49 to 51 mol%. Four isolates were identical with respect to small-subunit rRNA sequence over 891 positions compared and fall within a unique clade in the c-subclass of the Proteobacteria. Based on morphological, physiological and phylogenetic characteristics and specific symbiotic association with teredinid bivalves, a new genus and species, Teredinibacter turnerae gen. nov., sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is T7902T (vATCC 39867TvDSM 15152T).
Author Posting. © Society for General Mircobiology, 2002. This article is posted here by permission of Society for General Mircobiology for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology 52 (2002): 2261-2269, doi:10.1099/ijs.0.02184-0.