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dc.contributor.authorBringedal, Carina  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorEldevik, Tor  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorSkagseth, Øystein  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorSpall, Michael A.  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorØsterhus, Svein  Concept link
dc.date.accessioned2018-12-06T17:25:28Z
dc.date.available2018-12-06T17:25:28Z
dc.date.issued2018-11-19
dc.identifier.citationJournal of Climate 31 (2018): 9881-9901en_US
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/1912/10770
dc.descriptionAuthor Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2018. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Climate 31 (2018): 9881-9901, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-17-0889.1.en_US
dc.description.abstractThe Atlantic meridional overturning circulation and associated poleward heat transport are balanced by northern heat loss to the atmosphere and corresponding water-mass transformation. The circulation of northward-flowing Atlantic Water at the surface and returning overflow water at depth is particularly manifested—and observed—at the Greenland–Scotland Ridge where the water masses are guided through narrow straits. There is, however, a rich variability in the exchange of water masses across the ridge on all time scales. Focusing on seasonal and interannual time scales, and particularly the gateways of the Denmark Strait and between the Faroe Islands and Shetland, we specifically assess to what extent the exchanges of water masses across the Greenland–Scotland Ridge relate to wind forcing. On seasonal time scales, the variance explained of the observed exchanges can largely be related to large-scale wind patterns, and a conceptual model shows how this wind forcing can manifest via a barotropic, cyclonic circulation. On interannual time scales, the wind stress impact is less direct as baroclinic mechanisms gain importance and observations indicate a shift in the overflows from being more barotropically to more baroclinically forced during the observation period. Overall, the observed Greenland–Scotland Ridge exchanges reflect a horizontal (cyclonic) circulation on seasonal time scales, while the interannual variability more represents an overturning circulation.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipThis research was supported by the Research Council of Norway project NORTH (Grant 229763). Additional support for M. A. Spall was provided by National Science Foundation Grant OCE- 1558742, for T. Eldevik and S. Østerhus by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program project Blue-Action (Grant 727852), and for S. Østerhus by the European Framework Programs under Grant Agreement 308299 (NACLIM).en_US
dc.language.isoen_USen_US
dc.publisherAmerican Meteorological Societyen_US
dc.relation.urihttps://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-17-0889.1
dc.subjectOcean circulationen_US
dc.subjectThermocline circulationen_US
dc.subjectAtmosphere-ocean interactionen_US
dc.subjectNorth Atlantic Oscillationen_US
dc.subjectStatistical techniquesen_US
dc.subjectTime seriesen_US
dc.titleStructure and forcing of observed exchanges across the Greenland–Scotland Ridgeen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.identifier.doi10.1175/JCLI-D-17-0889.1


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