Resonance control of acoustic focusing systems through an environmental reference table and impedance spectroscopy
Kalb, Daniel J.
Olson, Robert J.
Sosik, Heidi M.
Woods, Travis A.
Graves, Steven W.
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Acoustic standing waves can precisely focus flowing particles or cells into tightly positioned streams for interrogation or downstream separations. The efficiency of an acoustic standing wave device is dependent upon operating at a resonance frequency. Small changes in a system’s temperature and sample salinity can shift the device’s resonance condition, leading to poor focusing. Practical implementation of an acoustic standing wave system requires an automated resonance control system to adjust the standing wave frequency in response to environmental changes. Here we have developed a rigorous approach for quantifying the optimal acoustic focusing frequency at any given environmental condition. We have demonstrated our approach across a wide range of temperature and salinity conditions to provide a robust characterization of how the optimal acoustic focusing resonance frequency shifts across these conditions. To generalize these results, two microfluidic bulk acoustic standing wave systems (a steel capillary and an etched silicon wafer) were examined. Models of these temperature and salinity effects suggest that it is the speed of sound within the liquid sample that dominates the resonance frequency shift. Using these results, a simple reference table can be generated to predict the optimal resonance condition as a function of temperature and salinity. Additionally, we show that there is a local impedance minimum associated with the optimal system resonance. The integration of the environmental results for coarse frequency tuning followed by a local impedance characterization for fine frequency adjustments, yields a highly accurate method of resonance control. Such an approach works across a wide range of environmental conditions, is easy to automate, and could have a significant impact across a wide range of microfluidic acoustic standing wave systems.
© The Author(s), 2018. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in PLoS One 13 (2018): e0207532, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0207532.
Suggested CitationPLoS One 13 (2018): e0207532
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