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dc.contributor.authorScully, Malcolm E.  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorTrowbridge, John H.  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorSherwood, Christopher R.  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorJones, Katie R.  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorTraykovski, Peter A.  Concept link
dc.date.accessioned2018-07-05T16:22:11Z
dc.date.available2018-10-12T16:43:46Z
dc.date.issued2018-04-10
dc.identifier.citationJournal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 123 (2018): 2494-2512en_US
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/1912/10449
dc.descriptionAuthor Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2018. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 123 (2018): 2494-2512, doi:10.1002/2017JC013252.en_US
dc.description.abstractDirect covariance observations of the mean flow Reynolds stress and sonar images of the seafloor collected on a wave‐exposed inner continental shelf demonstrate that the drag exerted by the seabed on the overlying flow is consistent with boundary layer models for wave‐current interaction, provided that the orientation and anisotropy of the bed roughness are appropriately quantified. Large spatial and temporal variations in drag result from nonequilibrium ripple dynamics, ripple anisotropy, and the orientation of the ripples relative to the current. At a location in coarse sand characterized by large two‐dimensional orbital ripples, the observed drag shows a strong dependence on the relative orientation of the mean current to the ripple crests. At a contrasting location in fine sand, where more isotropic sub‐orbital ripples are observed, the sensitivity of the current to the orientation of the ripples is reduced. Further, at the coarse site under conditions when the currents are parallel to the ripple crests and the wave orbital diameter is smaller than the wavelength of the relic orbital ripples, the flow becomes hydraulically smooth. This transition is not observed at the fine site, where the observed wave orbital diameter is always greater than the wavelength of the observed sub‐orbital ripples. Paradoxically, the dominant along‐shelf flows often experience lower drag at the coarse site than at the fine site, despite the larger ripples, highlighting the complex dynamics controlling drag in wave‐exposed environments with heterogeneous roughness.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipNational Science Foundation Ocean Sciences Division Award Grant Number: 1356060; U.S. Geological Survey Coastal and Marine Geology Programen_US
dc.language.isoen_USen_US
dc.publisherJohn Wiley & Sonsen_US
dc.relation.urihttps://doi.org/10.1002/2017JC013252
dc.subjectReynolds stressen_US
dc.subjectDragen_US
dc.subjectRipplesen_US
dc.titleDirect measurements of mean Reynolds stress and ripple roughness in the presence of energetic forcing by surface wavesen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.description.embargo2018-09-26en_US
dc.identifier.doi10.1002/2017JC013252


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