Multipath variability due to the Gulf Stream
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A phase-coded signal with 64-ms resolution was transmitted at 10-min intervals for a 19-day period over two ~300-km ranges. The acoustic source was moored at 2000-m depth northwest of Bermuda. One receiver was moored at 2000-m depth to the northeast of the source and the other receiver was bottom mounted at ~1000- m depth near Bermuda. The large (~0.6 s) travel time change at the Bermuda receiver is probably due in large part to motion of the source mooring in the presence of currents. The multipath arrival pattern at the moored receiver undergoes significant modification due to the presence of a southern meander of the Gulf Stream which intersects this transmission path.
Also published as: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 69 (1981): 982-988