Now showing items 433-452 of 932

    • IntCal04 terrestrial radiocarbon age calibration, 0-26 cal kyr BP 

      Reimer, Paula J.; Baillie, Mike G. L.; Bard, Edouard; Bayliss, Alex; Beck, J. Warren; Bertrand, Chanda J. H.; Blackwell, Paul G.; Buck, Caitlin E.; Burr, George S.; Cutler, Kirsten B.; Damon, Paul E.; Edwards, R. Lawrence; Fairbanks, Richard G.; Friedrich, Michael; Guilderson, Thomas P.; Hogg, Alan G.; Hughen, Konrad A.; Kromer, Bernd; McCormac, Gerry; Manning, Sturt; Ramsey, C. Bronk; Reimer, Ron W.; Remmele, Sabine; Southon, John R.; Stuiver, Minze; Talamo, Sahra; Taylor, F. W.; van der Plicht, Johannes; Weyhenmeyer, Constanze E. (Dept. of Geosciences, University of Arizona, 2004)
      A new calibration curve for the conversion of radiocarbon ages to calibrated (cal) ages has been constructed and internationally ratified to replace IntCal98, which extended from 0–24 cal kyr BP (Before Present, 0 cal BP ...
    • IntCal09 and Marine09 radiocarbon age calibration curves, 0–50,000 years cal BP 

      Reimer, Paula J.; Bard, Edouard; Bayliss, Alex; Beck, J. Warren; Blackwell, Paul G.; Ramsey, C. Bronk; Buck, Caitlin E.; Cheng, Hai; Edwards, R. Lawrence; Friedrich, Michael; Grootes, Pieter. M.; Guilderson, Thomas P.; Haflidason, Haflidi; Hajdas, Irka; Hatte, Christine; Heaton, Timothy J.; Hoffmann, Dirk L.; Hogg, Alan G.; Hughen, Konrad A.; Kaiser, K. Felix; Kromer, Bernd; Manning, Sturt W.; Niu, Mu; Reimer, Ron W.; Richards, David A.; Scott, E. Marian; Southon, John R.; Staff, Richard A.; Turney, Christian S. M.; van der Plicht, Johannes (Dept. of Geosciences, University of Arizona, 2009-12)
      The IntCal04 and Marine04 radiocarbon calibration curves have been updated from 12 cal kBP (cal kBP is here defined as thousands of calibrated years before AD 1950), and extended to 50 cal kBP, utilizing newly available ...
    • An integrated assessment model for helping the United States sea scallop (Placopecten magellanicus) fishery plan ahead for ocean acidification and warming 

      Cooley, Sarah R.; Rheuban, Jennie E.; Hart, Deborah R.; Luu, Victoria; Glover, David M.; Hare, Jonathan A.; Doney, Scott C. (Public Library of Science, 2015-05-06)
      Ocean acidification, the progressive change in ocean chemistry caused by uptake of atmospheric CO2, is likely to affect some marine resources negatively, including shellfish. The Atlantic sea scallop (Placopecten magellanicus) ...
    • Integrated Fe- and S-isotope study of seafloor hydrothermal vents at East Pacific Rise 9–10°N 

      Rouxel, Olivier J.; Shanks, Wayne C.; Bach, Wolfgang; Edwards, Katrina J. (2008-03-06)
      In this study, we report on coupled Fe- and S-isotope systematics of hydrothermal fluids and sulfide deposits from the East Pacific Rise at 9-10°N to better constrain processes affecting Fe- isotope fractionation in ...
    • Intensity of Th and Pa scavenging partitioned by particle chemistry in the North Atlantic Ocean 

      Hayes, Christopher T.; Anderson, Robert F.; Fleisher, Martin Q.; Vivancos, Sebastian M.; Lam, Phoebe J.; Ohnemus, Daniel C.; Huang, Kuo-Fang; Robinson, Laura F.; Lu, Yanbin; Cheng, Hai; Edwards, R. Lawrence; Moran, S. Bradley (2015-01)
      The natural radionuclides 231Pa and 230Th are incorporated into the marine sediment record by scavenging, or adsorption to various particle types, via chemical reactions that are not fully understood. Because these ...
    • The interaction of metal ions at the hydrous manganese dioxide-solution interface 

      Murray, James W. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1973-06)
      An experimental study of the interaction of metal ions with the surface of hydrous manganese dioxide has been completed. The results of these experiments have greatly improved our qualitative understanding of the adsorption ...
    • Interactions of cadmium, zinc, and phosphorus in marine Synechococcus : field uptake, physiological and proteomic studies 

      Cox, Alysia D. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2011-06)
      A combination of uptake field studies on natural phytoplankton assemblages and laboratory proteomic and physiological experiments on cyanobacterial isolates were conducted investigating the interactions of cadmium (Cd), ...
    • Interannual variability of primary production and dissolved organic nitrogen storage in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre 

      Luo, Ya-Wei; Ducklow, Hugh W.; Friedrichs, Marjorie A. M.; Church, Matthew J.; Karl, David M.; Doney, Scott C. (American Geophysical Union, 2012-08-10)
      The upper ocean primary production measurements from the Hawaii Ocean Time series (HOT) at Station ALOHA in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre showed substantial variability over the last two decades. The annual average ...
    • Interannual variations in continental-scale net carbon exchange and sensitivity to observing networks estimated from atmospheric CO2 inversions for the period 1980 to 2005 

      Gurney, Kevin R.; Baker, David F.; Rayner, Peter; Denning, Scott (American Geophysical Union, 2008-08-26)
      Interannually varying net carbon exchange fluxes from the TransCom 3 Level 2 Atmospheric Inversion Intercomparison Experiment are presented for the 1980 to 2005 time period. The fluxes represent the model mean, net carbon ...
    • Intercalibration studies of short-lived thorium-234 in the water column and marine particles 

      Maiti, Kanchan; Buesseler, Ken O.; Pike, Steven M.; Benitez-Nelson, Claudia R.; Cai, Pinghe; Chen, Weifang; Cochran, Kirk; Dai, Minhan; Dehairs, Frank; Gasser, Beat; Kelly, Roger P.; Masque, Pere; Miller, Lisa A.; Miquel, Juan Carlos; Moran, S. Bradley; Morris, Paul J.; Peine, Florian; Planchon, Frederic; Renfro, Alisha A.; Rutgers van der Loeff, Michiel M.; Santschi, Peter H.; Turnewitsch, Robert; Waples, James T.; Xu, Chen (Association for the Sciences of Limnology and Oceanography, 2012-09)
      Intercomparision of 234Th measurements in both water and particulate samples was carried out between 15 laboratories worldwide, as a part of GEOTRACES inter-calibration program. Particulate samples from four different ...
    • An intercomparison of procedures for the determination of total mercury in seawater and recommendations regarding mercury speciation during GEOTRACES cruises 

      Lamborg, Carl H.; Hammerschmidt, Chad R.; Gill, Gary A.; Mason, Robert P.; Gichuki, Susan (Association for the Sciences of Limnology and Oceanography, 2012-02)
      We conducted a laboratory intercomparison of total mercury (Hg) determination in seawater collected during U.S. GEOTRACES Intercalibration cruises in 2008 and 2009 to the NW Atlantic and NE Pacific Oceans. Results indicated ...
    • An interdisciplinary assessment of climate engineering strategies 

      Cusack, Daniela F.; Axsen, Jonn; Shwom, Rachael; Hartzell-Nichols, Lauren; White, Sam; Mackey, Katherine R. M. (Ecological Society of America, 2014-06)
      Mitigating further anthropogenic changes to the global climate will require reducing greenhouse-gas emissions (“abatement”), or else removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and/or diminishing solar input (“climate ...
    • Interlaboratory study for coral Sr/Ca and other element/Ca ratio measurements 

      Hathorne, Ed C.; Gagnon, Alexander C.; Felis, Thomas; Adkins, Jess F.; Asami, Ryuji; Boer, Wim; Caillon, Nicolas; Case, David H.; Cobb, Kim M.; Douville, Eric; deMenocal, Peter B.; Eisenhauer, Anton; Garbe-Schonberg, Dieter; Geibert, Walter; Goldstein, Steven L.; Hughen, Konrad A.; Inoue, Mayuri; Kawahata, Hodaka; Kolling, Martin; Cornec, Florence L.; Linsley, Braddock K.; McGregor, Helen V.; Montagna, Paolo; Nurhati, Intan S.; Quinn, Terrence M.; Raddatz, Jacek; Rebaubier, Helene; Robinson, Laura F.; Sadekov, Aleksey; Sherrell, Robert M.; Sinclair, Dan; Tudhope, Alexander W.; Wei, Gangjian; Wong, Henri; Wu, Henry C.; You, Chen-Feng (John Wiley & Sons, 2013-09-23)
      The Sr/Ca ratio of coral aragonite is used to reconstruct past sea surface temperature (SST). Twenty-one laboratories took part in an interlaboratory study of coral Sr/Ca measurements. Results show interlaboratory bias can ...
    • An interlaboratory study of TEX86 and BIT analysis of sediments, extracts, and standard mixtures 

      Schouten, Stefan; Hopmans, Ellen C.; Rosell-Mele, Antoni; Pearson, Ann; Adam, Pierre; Bauersachs, Thorsten; Bard, Edouard; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Bianchi, Thomas S.; Brocks, Jochen J.; Carlson, Laura Truxal; Castaneda, Isla S.; Derenne, Sylvie; Selver, Ayca Dogrul; Dutta, Koushik; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Fosse, Celine; Galy, Valier; Grice, Kliti; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Huang, Yongsong; Huguet, Arnaud; Huguet, Carme; Hurley, Sarah; Ingalls, Anitra; Jia, Guodong; Keely, Brendan; Knappy, Chris; Kondo, Miyuki; Krishnan, Srinath; Lincoln, Sara; Lipp, Julius; Mangelsdorf, Kai; Martínez-Garcia, Alfredo; Menot, Guillemette; Mets, Anchelique; Mollenhauer, Gesine; Ohkouchi, Naohiko; Ossebaar, Jort; Pagani, Mark; Pancost, Richard D.; Pearson, Emma J.; Peterse, Francien; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Schaeffer, Philippe; Schmitt, Gaby; Schwark, Lorenz; Shah, Sunita R.; Smith, Richard W.; Smittenberg, Rienk H.; Summons, Roger E.; Takano, Yoshinori; Talbot, Helen M.; Taylor, Kyle W. R.; Tarozo, Rafael; Uchida, Masao; van Dongen, Bart E.; Van Mooy, Benjamin A. S.; Wang, Jinxiang; Warren, Courtney; Weijers, Johan W. H.; Werne, Josef P.; Woltering, Martijn; Xie, Shucheng; Yamamoto, Masanobu; Yang, Huan; Zhang, Chuanlun L.; Zhang, Yige; Zhao, Meixun; Sinninghe Damste, Jaap S. (John Wiley & Sons, 2013-12-20)
      Two commonly used proxies based on the distribution of glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) are the TEX86 (TetraEther indeX of 86 carbon atoms) paleothermometer for sea surface temperature reconstructions and the ...
    • An interlaboratory study of TEX86 and BIT analysis using high-performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry 

      Schouten, Stefan; Hopmans, Ellen C.; van der Meer, Jaap; Mets, Anchelique; Bard, Edouard; Bianchi, Thomas S.; Diefendorf, Aaron; Escala, Marina; Freeman, Katharine H.; Furukawa, Yoshihiro; Huguet, Carme; Ingalls, Anitra; Menot-Combes, Guillemette; Nederbragt, Alexandra J.; Oba, Masahiro; Pearson, Ann; Pearson, Emma J.; Rosell-Mele, Antoni; Schaeffer, Philippe; Shah, Sunita R.; Shanahan, Timothy M.; Smith, Richard W.; Smittenberg, Rienk; Talbot, Helen M.; Uchida, Masao; Van Mooy, Benjamin A. S.; Yamamoto, Masanobu; Zhang, Zhaohui; Sinninghe Damste, Jaap S. (American Geophysical Union, 2009-03-20)
      Recently, two new proxies based on the distribution of glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) were proposed, i.e., the TEX86 proxy for sea surface temperature reconstructions and the BIT index for reconstructing ...
    • Interpreting comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography using peak topography maps with application to petroleum forensics 

      Ghasemi Damavandi, Hamidreza; Sen Gupta, Ananya; Nelson, Robert K.; Reddy, Christopher M. (BioMed Central, 2016-11-28)
      Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) provides high-resolution separations across hundreds of compounds in a complex mixture, thus unlocking unprecedented information for intricate quantitative interpretation. ...
    • Intertidal salt marshes as an important source of inorganic carbon to the coastal ocean 

      Wang, Zhaohui Aleck; Kroeger, Kevin D.; Ganju, Neil K.; Gonneea, Meagan E.; Chu, Sophie N. (John Wiley & Sons, 2016-07-18)
      Dynamic tidal export of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) to the coastal ocean from highly productive intertidal marshes and its effects on seawater carbonate chemistry are thoroughly evaluated. The study uses a comprehensive ...
    • Introduction to “Understanding the Ocean's biological pump : results from VERTIGO” 

      Buesseler, Ken O.; Lampitt, Richard S. (2008-04-04)
      Unknown and unexplained aspects of the human condition were the focus of a television series in the USA created by Rod Serling in the early 1960s. The term “The Twilight Zone” used in his show is even more pertinent to ...
    • Inverse estimates of anthropogenic CO2 uptake, transport, and storage by the ocean 

      Mikaloff Fletcher, Sara E.; Gruber, Nicolas; Jacobson, Andrew R.; Doney, Scott C.; Dutkiewicz, Stephanie; Gerber, Markus; Follows, Michael J.; Joos, Fortunat; Lindsay, Keith; Menemenlis, Dimitris; Mouchet, Anne; Muller, Simon A.; Sarmiento, Jorge L. (American Geophysical Union, 2006-04-05)
      Regional air-sea fluxes of anthropogenic CO2 are estimated using a Green's function inversion method that combines data-based estimates of anthropogenic CO2 in the ocean with information about ocean transport and mixing ...
    • Inverse estimates of the oceanic sources and sinks of natural CO2 and the implied oceanic carbon transport 

      Mikaloff Fletcher, Sara E.; Gruber, Nicolas; Jacobson, Andrew R.; Gloor, Emanuel; Doney, Scott C.; Dutkiewicz, Stephanie; Gerber, Markus; Follows, Michael J.; Joos, Fortunat; Lindsay, Keith; Menemenlis, Dimitris; Mouchet, Anne; Muller, Simon A.; Sarmiento, Jorge L. (American Geophysical Union, 2007-02-10)
      We use an inverse method to estimate the global-scale pattern of the air-sea flux of natural CO2, i.e., the component of the CO2 flux due to the natural carbon cycle that already existed in preindustrial times, on the basis ...