Environmental turbulent mixing controls on air-water gas exchange in marine and aquatic systems

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Zappa, Christopher J.
McGillis, Wade R.
Raymond, Peter A.
Edson, James B.
Hintsa, Eric J.
Zemmelink, Hendrik J.
Dacey, John W. H.
Ho, David T.
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Air-sea gas exchange
Turbulent dissipation rate
Air-water gas transfer influences CO2 and other climatically important trace gas fluxes on regional and global scales, yet the magnitude of the transfer is not well known. Widely used models of gas exchange rates are based on empirical relationships linked to wind speed, even though physical processes other than wind are known to play important roles. Here the first field investigations are described supporting a new mechanistic model based on surface water turbulence that predicts gas exchange for a range of aquatic and marine processes. Findings indicate that the gas transfer rate varies linearly with the turbulent dissipation rate to the inline equation power in a range of systems with different types of forcing - in the coastal ocean, in a macro-tidal river estuary, in a large tidal freshwater river, and in a model (i.e., artificial) ocean. These results have important implications for understanding carbon cycling.
Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2007. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Geophysical Research Letters 34 (2007): L10601, doi:10.1029/2006GL028790.
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Geophysical Research Letters 34 (2007): L10601
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