Automated ice-tethered profilers for seawater observations under pack ice in all seasons

dc.contributor.author Krishfield, Richard A.
dc.contributor.author Toole, John M.
dc.contributor.author Proshutinsky, Andrey
dc.contributor.author Timmermans, Mary-Louise
dc.date.accessioned 2010-11-02T12:41:23Z
dc.date.available 2010-11-02T12:41:23Z
dc.date.issued 2008-11
dc.description Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2008. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology 25 (2008): 2091-2105, doi:10.1175/2008JTECHO587.1. en_US
dc.description.abstract An automated, easily deployed Ice-Tethered Profiler (ITP) instrument system, developed for deployment on perennial sea ice in the polar oceans to measure changes in upper ocean water properties in all seasons, is described, and representative data from prototype instruments are presented. The ITP instrument consists of three components: a surface subsystem that sits atop an ice floe; a weighted, plastic-jacketed wire-rope tether of arbitrary length (up to 800 m) suspended from the surface element; and an instrumented underwater unit that employs a traction drive to profile up and down the wire tether. ITPs profile the water column at a programmed sampling interval; after each profile, the underwater unit transfers two files holding oceanographic and engineering data to the surface unit using an inductive modem and from the surface instrument to a shore-based data server using an Iridium transmitter. The surface instrument also accumulates battery voltage readings, buoy temperature data, and locations from a GPS receiver at a specified interval (usually every hour) and transmits those data daily. Oceanographic and engineering data are processed, displayed, and made available in near–real time (available online at http://www.whoi.edu/itp). Six ITPs were deployed in the Arctic Ocean between 2004 and 2006 in the Beaufort gyre with various programmed sampling schedules of two to six one-way traverses per day between 10- and 750–760-m depth, providing more than 5300 profiles in all seasons (as of July 2007). The acquired CTD profile data document interesting spatial variations in the major water masses of the Canada Basin, show the double-diffusive thermohaline staircase that lies above the warm, salty Atlantic layer, measure seasonal surface mixed layer deepening, and document several mesoscale eddies. Augmenting the systems already deployed and to replace expiring systems, an international array of more than one dozen ITPs will be deployed as part of the Arctic Observing Network during the International Polar Year (IPY) period (2007–08) holding promise for more valuable real-time upper ocean observations for operational needs, to support studies of ocean processes, and to facilitate numerical model initialization and validation. en_US
dc.description.sponsorship Initial development of the ITP concept was supported by the Cecil H. and Ida M. Green Technology Innovation Program. Funding for construction and deployment of the prototype ITPs was provided by the National Science Foundation Oceanographic Technology and Interdisciplinary Coordination (OTIC) Program and Office of Polar Programs (OPP) under Grant OCE-0324233. Continued support has been provided by the OPP Arctic Sciences Section under Awards ARC-0519899 and ARC-0631951, and internal WHOI funding. en_US
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf
dc.identifier.citation Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology 25 (2008): 2091-2105 en_US
dc.identifier.doi 10.1175/2008JTECHO587.1
dc.identifier.uri https://hdl.handle.net/1912/4031
dc.language.iso en_US en_US
dc.publisher American Meteorological Society en_US
dc.relation.uri https://doi.org/10.1175/2008JTECHO587.1
dc.subject Profilers en_US
dc.subject Sea ice en_US
dc.subject Instrumentation/sensors en_US
dc.subject Arctic en_US
dc.title Automated ice-tethered profilers for seawater observations under pack ice in all seasons en_US
dc.type Article en_US
dspace.entity.type Publication
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relation.isAuthorOfPublication.latestForDiscovery 8ca59fe4-aa6a-407f-826f-6ba363a967a7
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