Biogeographical patterns of tunicates utilizing eelgrass as substrate in the western North Atlantic between 39 degrees and 47 degrees north latitude (New Jersey to Newfoundland)

dc.contributor.author Carman, Mary R.
dc.contributor.author Colarusso, Philip D.
dc.contributor.author Neckles, Hilary A.
dc.contributor.author Bologna, Paul
dc.contributor.author Caines, Scott
dc.contributor.author Davidson, John D.P.
dc.contributor.author Evans, N. Tay
dc.contributor.author Fox, Sophia E.
dc.contributor.author Grunden, David W.
dc.contributor.author Hoffman, Sarah
dc.contributor.author Ma, Kevin C.K.
dc.contributor.author Matheson, Kyle
dc.contributor.author McKenzie, Cynthia H.
dc.contributor.author Nelson, Eric P.
dc.contributor.author Plaisted, Holly
dc.contributor.author Reddington, Emily
dc.contributor.author Schott, Stephen
dc.contributor.author Wong, Melisa C.
dc.date.accessioned 2020-03-05T21:41:05Z
dc.date.available 2020-03-05T21:41:05Z
dc.date.issued 2019-10-30
dc.description © The Author(s), 2019. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Carmen, M. R., Colarusso, P. D., Neckles, H. A., Bologna, P., Caines, S., Davidson, J. D. P., Evans, N. T., Fox, S. E., Grunden, D. W., Hoffman, S., Ma, K. C. K., Matheson, K., McKenzie, C. H., Nelson, E. P., Plaisted, H., Reddington, E., Schott, S., & Wong, M. C. Biogeographical patterns of tunicates utilizing eelgrass as substrate in the western North Atlantic between 39 degrees and 47 degrees north latitude (New Jersey to Newfoundland). Management of Biological Invasions, 10(4), (2019): 602-616, doi: 10.3391/mbi.2019.10.4.02. en_US
dc.description.abstract Colonization of eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) by tunicates can lead to reduced plant growth and survival. Several of the tunicate species that are found on eelgrass in the northwest Atlantic are highly aggressive colonizers, and range expansions are predicted in association with climate-change induced increases in seawater temperature. In 2017, we surveyed tunicates within eelgrass meadows at 33 sites from New Jersey to Newfoundland. Eight tunicate species were identified colonizing eelgrass, of which four were non-native and one was cryptogenic. The most common species (Botrylloides violaceus and Botryllus schlosseri) occurred from New York to Atlantic Canada. Tunicate faunas attached to eelgrass were less diverse north of Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Artificial substrates in the vicinity of the eelgrass meadows generally supported more tunicate species than did the eelgrass, but fewer species co-occurred in northern sites than southern sites. The latitudinal gradient in tunicate diversity corresponded to gradients of summertime sea surface temperature and traditional biogeographical zones in the northwest Atlantic, where Cape Cod represents a transition between cold-water and warm-water invertebrate faunas. Tunicate density in the eelgrass meadows was low, ranging generally from 1–25% cover of eelgrass shoots, suggesting that space availability does not currently limit tunicate colonization of eelgrass. This survey, along with our 2013 survey, provide a baseline for identifying future changes in tunicate distribution and abundance in northwest Atlantic eelgrass meadows. en_US
dc.description.sponsorship We thank Benedikte Vercaemer, Dann Blackwood, Jonathon Seaward, Dani Cleary, Sam Hartman, Kim Manzo, and Jason Havelin for field assistance. Thank you too to Alicia Grimaldi for map construction and Page Valentine for constructively reviewing the manuscript. Thank you to the Community Preservation Committee of Oak Bluffs, Massachusetts, and the USGS-WHOI Cooperative Agreement for funding (Carman). All data used in this paper are publicly available through USGS ScienceBase at https://doi.org/10.5066/P9GDBDFQ. Any use of trade, firm, or product names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government. en_US
dc.identifier.citation Carmen, M. R., Colarusso, P. D., Neckles, H. A., Bologna, P., Caines, S., Davidson, J. D. P., Evans, N. T., Fox, S. E., Grunden, D. W., Hoffman, S., Ma, K. C. K., Matheson, K., McKenzie, C. H., Nelson, E. P., Plaisted, H., Reddington, E., Schott, S., & Wong, M. C. (2019). Biogeographical patterns of tunicates utilizing eelgrass as substrate in the western North Atlantic between 39 degrees and 47 degrees north latitude (New Jersey to Newfoundland). Management of Biological Invasions, 10(4), 602-616. en_US
dc.identifier.doi 10.3391/mbi.2019.10.4.02
dc.identifier.uri https://hdl.handle.net/1912/25481
dc.publisher Regional Euro-Asian Biological Invasions Centre en_US
dc.relation.uri https://doi.org/10.3391/mbi.2019.10.4.02
dc.rights Attribution 4.0 International *
dc.rights.uri http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ *
dc.subject regional study en_US
dc.subject Zostera marina en_US
dc.subject fouling organisms en_US
dc.subject Ascidiacea en_US
dc.subject introduced species en_US
dc.title Biogeographical patterns of tunicates utilizing eelgrass as substrate in the western North Atlantic between 39 degrees and 47 degrees north latitude (New Jersey to Newfoundland) en_US
dc.type Article en_US
dspace.entity.type Publication
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