Range compensation for backscattering measurements in the difference-frequency nearfield of a parametric sonar

dc.contributor.author Foote, Kenneth G.
dc.date.accessioned 2012-05-16T13:49:36Z
dc.date.available 2012-05-16T13:49:36Z
dc.date.issued 2012-05
dc.description Author Posting. © Acoustical Society of America, 2012. This article is posted here by permission of Acoustical Society of America for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 131 (2012): 3698-3709, doi:10.1121/1.3688505. en_US
dc.description.abstract Measurement of acoustic backscattering properties of targets requires removal of the range dependence of echoes. This process is called range compensation. For conventional sonars making measurements in the transducer farfield, the compensation removes effects of geometrical spreading and absorption. For parametric sonars consisting of a parametric acoustic transmitter and a conventional-sonar receiver, two additional range dependences require compensation when making measurements in the nonlinearly generated difference-frequency nearfield: an apparently increasing source level and a changing beamwidth. General expressions are derived for range compensation functions in the difference-frequency nearfield of parametric sonars. These are evaluated numerically for a parametric sonar whose difference-frequency band, effectively 1–6 kHz, is being used to observe Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) in situ. Range compensation functions for this sonar are compared with corresponding functions for conventional sonars for the cases of single and multiple scatterers. Dependences of these range compensation functions on the parametric sonar transducer shape, size, acoustic power density, and hydrography are investigated. Parametric range compensation functions, when applied with calibration data, will enable difference-frequency echoes to be expressed in physical units of volume backscattering, and backscattering spectra, including fish-swimbladder-resonances, to be analyzed. en_US
dc.description.sponsorship This work was supported by ONR Award No. N000140910482. en_US
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf
dc.identifier.citation Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 131 (2012): 3698-3709 en_US
dc.identifier.doi 10.1121/1.3688505
dc.identifier.uri https://hdl.handle.net/1912/5186
dc.language.iso en_US en_US
dc.publisher Acoustical Society of America en_US
dc.relation.uri https://doi.org/10.1121/1.3688505
dc.subject Acoustic wave scattering en_US
dc.subject Backscatter en_US
dc.subject Biological techniques en_US
dc.subject Sonar signal processing en_US
dc.subject Underwater acoustic propagation en_US
dc.subject Zoology en_US
dc.title Range compensation for backscattering measurements in the difference-frequency nearfield of a parametric sonar en_US
dc.type Article en_US
dspace.entity.type Publication
relation.isAuthorOfPublication a3e87c38-3134-4623-a69e-60fc59f5d098
relation.isAuthorOfPublication.latestForDiscovery a3e87c38-3134-4623-a69e-60fc59f5d098
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