Squid have nociceptors that display widespread long-term sensitization and spontaneous activity after bodily injury

dc.contributor.author Crook, Robyn J.
dc.contributor.author Hanlon, Roger T.
dc.contributor.author Walters, Edgar T.
dc.date.accessioned 2013-06-28T17:49:14Z
dc.date.available 2014-10-22T08:57:22Z
dc.date.issued 2013-06-12
dc.description © The Author(s), 2013. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Journal of Neuroscience 33 (2013): 10021-10026, doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0646-13.2013. en_US
dc.description.abstract Bodily injury in mammals often produces persistent pain that is driven at least in part by long-lasting sensitization and spontaneous activity (SA) in peripheral branches of primary nociceptors near sites of injury. While nociceptors have been described in lower vertebrates and invertebrates, outside of mammals there is limited evidence for peripheral sensitization of primary afferent neurons, and there are no reports of persistent SA being induced in primary afferents by noxious stimulation. Cephalopod molluscs are the most neurally and behaviorally complex invertebrates, with brains rivaling those of some vertebrates in size and complexity. This has fostered the opinion that cephalopods may experience pain, leading some governments to include cephalopods under animal welfare laws. It is not known, however, if cephalopods possess nociceptors, or whether their somatic sensory neurons exhibit nociceptive sensitization. We demonstrate that squid possess nociceptors that selectively encode noxious mechanical but not heat stimuli, and that show long-lasting peripheral sensitization to mechanical stimuli after minor injury to the body. As in mammals, injury in squid can cause persistent SA in peripheral afferents. Unlike mammals, the afferent sensitization and SA are almost as prominent on the contralateral side of the body as they are near an injury. Thus, while squid exhibit peripheral alterations in afferent neurons similar to those that drive persistent pain in mammals, robust changes far from sites of injury in squid suggest that persistently enhanced afferent activity provides much less information about the location of an injury in cephalopods than it does in mammals. en_US
dc.description.embargo 2013-12-12 en_US
dc.description.sponsorship This work was supported by NSF Grants IOS-1146987 to E.T.W. and IOS-1145478 to R.T.H., and the Baxter Pharmaceuticals Fellowship and Bang Summer Research Fellowship from the Marine Biological Laboratory to R.J.C. en_US
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf
dc.identifier.citation Journal of Neuroscience 33 (2013): 10021-10026 en_US
dc.identifier.doi 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0646-13.2013
dc.identifier.uri https://hdl.handle.net/1912/6023
dc.language.iso en_US en_US
dc.publisher Society for Neuroscience en_US
dc.relation.uri https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0646-13.2013
dc.rights Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported *
dc.rights.uri http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ *
dc.title Squid have nociceptors that display widespread long-term sensitization and spontaneous activity after bodily injury en_US
dc.type Article en_US
dspace.entity.type Publication
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relation.isAuthorOfPublication.latestForDiscovery 8640822f-6737-4e09-9b79-429d67c7cd33
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