Climate variability, oceanography, bowhead whale distribution, and Iñupiat subsistence whaling near Barrow, Alaska Ashjian, Carin J. Braund, Stephen R. Campbell, Robert G. George, John C. Kruse, Jack Maslowski, Wieslaw Moore, Sue E. Nicolson, Craig R. Okkonen, Stephen R. Sherr, Barry F. Sherr, Evelyn B. Spitz, Yvette H. 2012-04-12T18:27:31Z 2012-04-12T18:27:31Z 2010-06
dc.description Author Posting. © Arctic Institute of North America, 2010. This article is posted here by permission of Arctic Institute of North America for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Arctic 63 (2010): 179-194. en_US
dc.description.abstract The annual migration of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) past Barrow, Alaska, has provided subsistence hunting to Iñupiat for centuries. Bowheads recurrently feed on aggregations of zooplankton prey near Barrow in autumn. The mechanisms that form these aggregations, and the associations between whales and oceanography, were investigated using field sampling, retrospective analysis, and traditional knowledge interviews. Oceanographic and aerial surveys were conducted near Barrow during August and September in 2005 and 2006. Multiple water masses were observed, and close coupling between water mass type and biological characteristics was noted. Short-term variability in hydrography was associated with changes in wind speed and direction that profoundly affected plankton taxonomic composition. Aggregations of ca. 50–100 bowhead whales were observed in early September of both years at locations consistent with traditional knowledge. Retrospective analyses of records for 1984–2004 also showed that annual aggregations of whales near Barrow were associated with wind speed and direction. Euphausiids and copepods appear to be upwelled onto the Beaufort Sea shelf during Eor SEwinds. A favorable feeding environment is produced when these plankton are retained and concentrated on the shelf by the prevailing westward Beaufort Sea shelf currents that converge with the Alaska Coastal Current flowing to the northeast along the eastern edge of Barrow Canyon. en_US
dc.description.sponsorship This work was supported by NSF Grants OPPPP-0436131 to C. Ashjian (S. Braund Subcontract), OPPPP-0436110 to R. Campbell, OPPPP-0436127 to W. Maslowski, OPPPP-0436009 to C. Nicolson and J. Kruse, OPPPP-043166 to S. Okkonen, and OPPPP-0435956 to Y. Spitz, E. Sherr, and B. Sherr. en_US
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf
dc.identifier.citation Arctic 63 (2010): 179-194 en_US
dc.language.iso en_US en_US
dc.publisher Arctic Institute of North America en_US
dc.subject Bowhead whale en_US
dc.subject Plankton en_US
dc.subject Oceanography en_US
dc.subject Beaufort Sea en_US
dc.subject Subsistence whaling en_US
dc.title Climate variability, oceanography, bowhead whale distribution, and Iñupiat subsistence whaling near Barrow, Alaska en_US
dc.type Article en_US
dspace.entity.type Publication
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