Alexandrium fundyense cysts in the Gulf of Maine : long-term time series of abundance and distribution, and linkages to past and future blooms Anderson, Donald M. Keafer, Bruce A. Kleindinst, Judith L. McGillicuddy, Dennis J. Martin, Jennifer L. Norton, Kerry Pilskaln, Cynthia H. Smith, Juliette L. Sherwood, Christopher R. Butman, Bradford 2014-07-11T18:50:01Z 2014-07-11T18:50:01Z 2013-10
dc.description Author Posting. © The Author(s), 2013. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of Elsevier for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography 103 (2014): 6-26, doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2013.10.002. en_US
dc.description.abstract Here we document Alexandrium fundyense cyst abundance and distribution patterns over nine years (1997 and 2004-2011) in the coastal waters of the Gulf of Maine (GOM) and identify linkages between those patterns and several metrics of the severity or magnitude of blooms occurring before and after each autumn cyst survey. We also explore the relative utility of two measures of cyst abundance and demonstrate that GOM cyst counts can be normalized to sediment volume, revealing meaningful patterns equivalent to those determined with dry weight normalization.Cyst concentrations were highly variable spatially. Two distinct 1 seedbeds (defined here as accumulation zones with > 300 cysts cm-3) are evident, one in the Bay of Fundy (BOF) and one in mid-coast Maine. Overall, seedbed locations remained relatively constant through time, but their area varied 3-4 fold, and total cyst abundance more than 10 fold among years. A major expansion of the mid-coast Maine seedbed occurred in 2009 following an unusually intense A. fundyense bloom with visible red-water conditions, but that feature disappeared by late 2010. The regional system thus has only two seedbeds with the bathymetry, sediment characteristics, currents, biology, and environmental conditions necessary to persist for decades or longer. Strong positive correlations were confirmed between the abundance of cysts in both the 0-1 and the 0-3 cm layers of sediments in autumn and geographic measures of the extent of the bloom that occurred the next year (i.e., cysts → blooms), such as the length of coastline closed due to shellfish toxicity or the southernmost latitude of shellfish closures. In general, these metrics of bloom geographic extent did not correlate with the number of cysts in sediments following the blooms (blooms → cysts). There are, however, significant positive correlations between 0-3 cm cyst abundances and metrics of the preceding bloom that are indicative of bloom intensity or vegetative cell abundance (e.g., cumulative shellfish toxicity, duration of detectable toxicity in shellfish, and bloom termination date). These data suggest that it may be possible to use cyst abundance to empirically forecast the geographic extent of the forthcoming bloom and, conversely, to use other metrics from bloom and toxicity events to forecast the size of the subsequent cyst population as the inoculum for the next year’s bloom. This is an important step towards understanding the excystment/encystment cycle in A. fundyense bloom dynamics while also augmenting our predictive capability for this HAB-forming species in the GOM. en_US
dc.description.sponsorship Research support provided by the ECOHAB Grant program through NOAA Grants NA06NOS4780245 and NA09NOS4780193, and through the Woods Hole Center for Oceans and Human Health, National 1 Science Foundation (NSF) Grants OCE-0430724, OCE-0911031, and OCE-1314642; and National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) Grants 1-P50-ES012742-01 and 1-P01-ES021923-01, and funding through the states of ME, NH, and MA. We are also grateful for event response funding provided for many of the cruises. Funding for J.L. Martin was provided by Fisheries and Oceans Canada. en_US
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dc.language.iso en_US en_US
dc.subject Alexandrium fundyense en_US
dc.subject Cysts en_US
dc.subject Resuspension en_US
dc.subject Gulf of Maine en_US
dc.subject Harmful algal bloom en_US
dc.subject HAB en_US
dc.subject Red tide en_US
dc.subject Paralytic shellfish poisoning en_US
dc.title Alexandrium fundyense cysts in the Gulf of Maine : long-term time series of abundance and distribution, and linkages to past and future blooms en_US
dc.type Preprint en_US
dspace.entity.type Publication
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