Karl David M.

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David M.

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Now showing 1 - 7 of 7
  • Article
    Autonomous tracking and sampling of the deep chlorophyll maximum layer in an open-ocean eddy by a long-range autonomous underwater vehicle
    (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2020-10-13) Zhang, Yanwu ; Kieft, Brian ; Hobson, Brett W. ; Ryan, John P. ; Barone, Benedetto ; Preston, Christina M. ; Roman, Brent ; Raanan, Ben-Yair ; Marin, Roman ; O’Reilly, Thomas C. ; Rueda, Carlos A. ; Pargett, Douglas ; Yamahara, Kevan M. ; Poulos, Steve ; Romano, Anna ; Foreman, Gabe ; Ramm, Hans ; Wilson, Samuel T. ; DeLong, Edward F. ; Karl, David M. ; Birch, James M. ; Bellingham, James G. ; Scholin, Christopher A.
    Phytoplankton communities residing in the open ocean, the largest habitat on Earth, play a key role in global primary production. Through their influence on nutrient supply to the euphotic zone, open-ocean eddies impact the magnitude of primary production and its spatial and temporal distributions. It is important to gain a deeper understanding of the microbial ecology of marine ecosystems under the influence of eddy physics with the aid of advanced technologies. In March and April 2018, we deployed autonomous underwater and surface vehicles in a cyclonic eddy in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre to investigate the variability of the microbial community in the deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM) layer. One long-range autonomous underwater vehicle (LRAUV) carrying a third-generation Environmental Sample Processor (3G-ESP) autonomously tracked and sampled the DCM layer for four days without surfacing. The sampling LRAUV's vertical position in the DCM layer was maintained by locking onto the isotherm corresponding to the chlorophyll peak. The vehicle ran on tight circles while drifting with the eddy current. This mode of operation enabled a quasi-Lagrangian time series focused on sampling the temporal variation of the DCM population. A companion LRAUV surveyed a cylindrical volume around the sampling LRAUV to monitor spatial and temporal variation in contextual water column properties. The simultaneous sampling and mapping enabled observation of DCM microbial community in its natural frame of reference.
  • Article
    Isolation and characterization of bacteria that degrade phosphonates in marine dissolved organic matter
    (Frontiers Media, 2017-09-26) Sosa, Oscar A. ; Repeta, Daniel J. ; Ferrón, Sara ; Bryant, Jessica A. ; Mende, Daniel R. ; Karl, David M. ; DeLong, Edward F.
    Semi-labile dissolved organic matter (DOM) accumulates in surface waters of the oligotrophic ocean gyres and turns over on seasonal to annual timescales. This reservoir of DOM represents an important source of carbon, energy, and nutrients to marine microbial communities but the identity of the microorganisms and the biochemical pathways underlying the cycling of DOM remain largely uncharacterized. In this study we describe bacteria isolated from the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre (NPSG) near Hawaii that are able to degrade phosphonates associated with high molecular weight dissolved organic matter (HMWDOM), which represents a large fraction of semi-labile DOM. We amended dilution-to-extinction cultures with HMWDOM collected from NPSG surface waters and with purified HMWDOM enriched with polysaccharides bearing alkylphosphonate esters. The HMWDOM-amended cultures were enriched in Roseobacter isolates closely related to Sulfitobacter and close relatives of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria of the Oceanospirillaceae family, many of which encoded phosphonate degradation pathways. Sulfitobacter cultures encoding C-P lyase were able to catabolize methylphosphonate and 2-hydroxyethylphosphonate, as well as the esters of these phosphonates found in native HMWDOM polysaccharides to acquire phosphorus while producing methane and ethylene, respectively. Conversely, growth of these isolates on HMWDOM polysaccharides as carbon source did not support robust increases in cell yields, suggesting that the constituent carbohydrates in HMWDOM were not readily available to these individual isolates. We postulate that the complete remineralization of HMWDOM polysaccharides requires more complex microbial inter-species interactions. The degradation of phosphonate esters and other common substitutions in marine polysaccharides may be key steps in the turnover of marine DOM.
  • Article
    Diversity and origins of bacterial and archaeal viruses on sinking particles reaching the abyssal ocean
    (Springer Nature, 2022-03-02) Luo, Elaine ; Leu, Andy O. ; Eppley, John ; Karl, David M. ; DeLong, Edward F.
    Sinking particles and particle-associated microbes influence global biogeochemistry through particulate matter export from the surface to the deep ocean. Despite ongoing studies of particle-associated microbes, viruses in these habitats remain largely unexplored. Whether, where, and which viruses might contribute to particle production and export remain open to investigation. In this study, we analyzed 857 virus population genomes associated with sinking particles collected over three years in sediment traps moored at 4000 m in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre. Particle-associated viruses here were linked to cellular hosts through matches to bacterial and archaeal metagenome-assembled genome (MAG)-encoded prophages or CRISPR spacers, identifying novel viruses infecting presumptive deep-sea bacteria such as Colwellia, Moritella, and Shewanella. We also identified lytic viruses whose abundances correlated with particulate carbon flux and/or were exported from the photic to abyssal ocean, including cyanophages. Our data are consistent with some of the predicted outcomes of the viral shuttle hypothesis, and further suggest that viral lysis of both autotrophic and heterotrophic prokaryotes may play a role in carbon export. Our analyses revealed the diversity and origins of prevalent viruses found on deep-sea sinking particles and identified prospective viral groups for future investigation into processes that govern particle export in the open ocean.
  • Article
    Draft genome sequence of marine alphaproteobacterial strain HIMB11, the first cultivated representative of a unique lineage within the Roseobacter clade possessing an unusually small genome
    (Genomic Standards Consortium, 2014) Durham, Bryndan P. ; Grote, Jana ; Whittaker, Kerry A. ; Bender, Sara J. ; Luo, Haiwei ; Grim, Sharon L. ; Brown, Julia M. ; Casey, John F. ; Dron, Antony ; Florez-Leiva, Lennis ; Krupke, Andreas ; Luria, Catherine M. ; Mine, Aric ; Nigro, Olivia D. ; Pather, Santhiska ; Talarmin, Agathe ; Wear, Emma K. ; Weber, Thomas S. ; Wilson, Jesse M. ; Church, Matthew J. ; DeLong, Edward F. ; Karl, David M. ; Steward, Grieg F. ; Eppley, John ; Kyrpides, Nikos C. ; Schuster, Stephan ; Rappe, Michael S.
    Strain HIMB11 is a planktonic marine bacterium isolated from coastal seawater in Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaii belonging to the ubiquitous and versatile Roseobacter clade of the alphaproteobacterial family Rhodobacteraceae. Here we describe the preliminary characteristics of strain HIMB11, including annotation of the draft genome sequence and comparative genomic analysis with other members of the Roseobacter lineage. The 3,098,747 bp draft genome is arranged in 34 contigs and contains 3,183 protein-coding genes and 54 RNA genes. Phylogenomic and 16S rRNA gene analyses indicate that HIMB11 represents a unique sublineage within the Roseobacter clade. Comparison with other publicly available genome sequences from members of the Roseobacter lineage reveals that strain HIMB11 has the genomic potential to utilize a wide variety of energy sources (e.g. organic matter, reduced inorganic sulfur, light, carbon monoxide), while possessing a reduced number of substrate transporters.
  • Article
    Iron depletion in the deep chlorophyll maximum: mesoscale eddies as natural iron fertilization experiments
    (American Geophysical Union, 2021-11-17) Hawco, Nicholas J. ; Barone, Benedetto ; Church, Matthew J. ; Babcock-Adams, Lydia ; Repeta, Daniel J. ; Wear, Emma K. ; Foreman, Rhea K. ; Björkman, Karin M. ; Bent, Shavonna M. ; Van Mooy, Benjamin A. S. ; Sheyn, Uri ; DeLong, Edward F. ; Acker, Marianne ; Kelly, Rachel L. ; Nelson, Alexa ; Ranieri, John ; Clemente, Tara M. ; Karl, David M. ; John, Seth G.
    In stratified oligotrophic waters, phytoplankton communities forming the deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM) are isolated from atmospheric iron sources above and remineralized iron sources below. Reduced supply leads to a minimum in dissolved iron (dFe) near 100 m, but it is unclear if iron limits growth at the DCM. Here, we propose that natural iron addition events occur regularly with the passage of mesoscale eddies, which alter the supply of dFe and other nutrients relative to the availability of light, and can be used to test for iron limitation at the DCM. This framework is applied to two eddies sampled in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre. Observations in an anticyclonic eddy center indicated downwelling of iron-rich surface waters, leading to increased dFe at the DCM but no increase in productivity. In contrast, uplift of isopycnals within a cyclonic eddy center increased supply of both nitrate and dFe to the DCM, and led to dominance of picoeukaryotic phytoplankton. Iron addition experiments did not increase productivity in either eddy, but significant enhancement of leucine incorporation in the light was observed in the cyclonic eddy, a potential indicator of iron stress among Prochlorococcus. Rapid cycling of siderophores and low dFe:nitrate uptake ratios also indicate that a portion of the microbial community was stressed by low iron. However, near-complete nitrate drawdown in this eddy, which represents an extreme case in nutrient supply compared to nearby Hawaii Ocean Time-series observations, suggests that recycling of dFe in oligotrophic ecosystems is sufficient to avoid iron limitation in the DCM under typical conditions.
  • Preprint
    Distinct dissolved organic matter sources induce rapid transcriptional responses in coexisting populations of Prochlorococcus, Pelagibacter and the OM60 clade
    ( 2013-07) Sharma, Adrian K. ; Becker, Jamie W. ; Ottesen, Elizabeth A. ; Bryant, Jessica A. ; Duhamel, Solange ; Karl, David M. ; Cordero, Otto X. ; Repeta, Daniel J. ; DeLong, Edward F.
    A considerable fraction of the Earth's organic carbon exists in dissolved form in seawater. To investigate the roles of planktonic marine microbes in the biogeochemical cycling of this dissolved organic matter (DOM), we performed controlled seawater incubation experiments and followed the responses of an oligotrophic surface water microbial assemblage to perturbations with DOM derived from an axenic culture of Prochlorococcus, or high-molecular weight DOM concentrated from nearby surface waters. The rapid transcriptional responses of both Prochlorococcus and Pelagibacter populations suggested the utilization of organic nitrogen compounds common to both DOM treatments. Along with these responses, both populations demonstrated decreases in gene transcripts associated with nitrogen stress, including those involved in ammonium acquisition. In contrast, responses from low abundance organisms of the NOR5/OM60 gammaproteobacteria were observed later in the experiment, and included elevated levels of gene transcripts associated with polysaccharide uptake and oxidation. In total, these results suggest that numerically dominant oligotrophic microbes rapidly acquire nitrogen from commonly available organic sources, and also point to an important role for carbohydrates found within the DOM pool for sustaining the less abundant microorganisms in these oligotrophic systems.
  • Article
    Microbial sources of exocellular DNA in the ocean
    (American Society for Microbiology, 2022-03-21) Linney, Morgan D. ; Eppley, John ; Romano, Anna ; Luo, Elaine ; DeLong, Edward F. ; Karl, David M.
    Exocellular DNA is operationally defined as the fraction of the total DNA pool that passes through a membrane filter (0.1 μm). It is composed of DNA-containing vesicles, viruses, and free DNA and is ubiquitous in all aquatic systems, although the sources, sinks, and ecological consequences are largely unknown. Using a method that provides separation of these three fractions, we compared open ocean depth profiles of DNA associated with each fraction. Pelagibacter-like DNA dominated the vesicle fractions for all samples examined over a depth range of 75 to 500 m. Viral DNA consisted predominantly of myovirus-like and podovirus-like DNA and contained the highest proportion of unannotated sequences. Euphotic zone free DNA (75 to 125 m) contained primarily bacterial and viral sequences, with bacteria dominating samples from the mesopelagic zone (500 to 1,000 m). A high proportion of mesopelagic zone free DNA sequences appeared to originate from surface waters, including a large amount of DNA contributed by high-light Prochlorococcus ecotypes. Throughout the water column, but especially in the mesopelagic zone, the composition of free DNA sequences was not always reflective of cooccurring microbial communities that inhabit the same sampling depth. These results reveal the composition of free DNA in different regions of the water column (euphotic and mesopelagic zones), with implications for dissolved organic matter cycling and export (by way of sinking particles and/or migratory zooplankton) as a delivery mechanism.