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ArticleEvent-dominated transport, provenance, and burial of organic carbon in the Japan Trench(Elsevier, 2021-03-24) Schwestermann, Tobias ; Eglinton, Timothy I. ; Haghipour, Negar ; McNichol, Ann P. ; Ikehara, Ken ; Strasser, MichaelThe delivery of organic carbon (OC) to the ocean's deepest trenches in the hadal zone is poorly understood, but may be important for the carbon cycle, contain crucial information on sediment provenance and event-related transport processes, and provide age constraints on stratigraphic sequences in this terminal sink. In this study, we systematically characterize bulk organic matter (OM) and OC signatures (TOC/TN, C, 14C), as well as those from application of serial thermal oxidation (ramped pyrolysis/oxidation) of sediment cores recovered along an entire hadal trench encompassing high stratigraphic resolution records spanning nearly 2000 years of deposition. We analyze two cores from the southern and northern Japan Trench, where submarine canyon systems link shelf with trench. We compare results with previously published data from the central Japan Trench, where canyon systems are absent. Our analyses enable refined dating of the stratigraphic record and indicate that event deposits arise from remobilization of relatively surficial sediment coupled with deeper erosion along turbidity current pathways in the southern and central study site and from canyon flushing events in the northern study site. Furthermore, our findings indicate deposition of predominantly marine OC within hemipelagic background sediment as well as associated with event deposits along the entire trench axis. This implies that canyon systems flanking the Japan Trench do not serve as a short-circuit for injection of terrestrial OC to the hadal zone, and that tropical cyclones are not major agents for sediment and carbon transfer into this trench system. These findings further support previous Japan Trench studies interpreting that event deposits originate from the landward trench slope and are earthquake-triggered. The very low terrestrial OC input into the Japan Trench can be explained by the significant distance between trench and hinterland (>180 km), and the physiography of the canyons that do not connect to coast and river systems. We suggest that detailed analyzes of long sedimentary records are essential to understand OC transfer, deposition and burial in hadal trenches.
ArticleHigh-resolution and high-precision correlation of dark and light layers in the Quaternary hemipelagic sediments of the Japan Sea recovered during IODP Expedition 346(Springer, 2018-03-26) Tada, Ryuji ; Irino, Tomohisa ; Ikehara, Ken ; Karasuda, Akinori ; Sugisaki, Saiko ; Xuan, Chuang ; Sagawa, Takuya ; Itaki, Takuya ; Kubota, Yoshimi ; Lu, Song ; Seki, Arisa ; Murray, Richard W. ; Alvarez-Zarikian, Carlos A. ; Anderson, William T. ; Bassetti, Maria-Angela ; Brace, Bobbi J. ; Clemens, Steven C. ; da Costa Gurgel, Marcio H. ; Dickens, Gerald R. ; Dunlea, Ann G. ; Gallagher, Stephen J. ; Giosan, Liviu ; Henderson, Andrew C. G. ; Holbourn, Ann E. ; Kinsley, Christopher W. ; Lee, Gwang Soo ; Lee, Kyung Eun ; Lofi, Johanna ; Lopes, Christina I. C. D. ; Saavedra-Pellitero, Mariem ; Peterson, Larry C. ; Singh, Raj K. ; Toucanne, Samuel ; Wan, Shiming ; Zheng, Hongbo ; Ziegler, MartinThe Quaternary hemipelagic sediments of the Japan Sea are characterized by centimeter- to decimeter-scale alternation of dark and light clay to silty clay, which are bio-siliceous and/or bio-calcareous to a various degree. Each of the dark and light layers are considered as deposited synchronously throughout the deeper (> 500 m) part of the sea. However, attempts for correlation and age estimation of individual layers are limited to the upper few tens of meters. In addition, the exact timing of the depositional onset of these dark and light layers and its synchronicity throughout the deeper part of the sea have not been explored previously, although the onset timing was roughly estimated as ~ 1.5 Ma based on the result of Ocean Drilling Program legs 127/128. Consequently, it is not certain exactly when their deposition started, whether deposition of dark and light layers was synchronous and whether they are correlatable also in the earlier part of their depositional history. The Quaternary hemipelagic sediments of the Japan Sea were drilled at seven sites during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 346 in 2013. Alternation of dark and light layers was recovered at six sites whose water depths are > ~ 900 m, and continuous composite columns were constructed at each site. Here, we report our effort to correlate individual dark layers and estimate their ages based on a newly constructed age model at Site U1424 using the best available paleomagnetic datum and marker tephras. The age model is further tuned to LR04 δ18O curve using gamma ray attenuation density (GRA) since it reflects diatom contents that are higher during interglacial high-stands. The constructed age model for Site U1424 is projected to other sites using correlation of dark layers to form a high-resolution and high-precision paleo-observatory network that allows to reconstruct changes in material fluxes with high spatio-temporal resolutions.