Wooding Frank B.
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Technical ReportA simple ocean bottom hydrophone with 200 megabyte data capacity(Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1993-06) Peal, Kenneth R. ; Purdy, G. Michael ; Koelsch, Donald E. ; Wooding, Frank B.The Woods Hole Ocean Bottom Hydrophone instrument records the digitized output of a single hydrophone sensor at rates between 250 and 1200 samples per second with a dynamic range of 98 dB and can be deployed at depths to 600 meters. The unit's 200 megabyte disk recorder allows operation for periods up to 5 days. Designed for typical marine seismic refraction operations the unit is reliable and simple to deploy and recover. A detailed description is provided of the instrument design and application including transfer function, clock accuracy, data format, sample data and power requirements.
Technical ReportLake Kivu expedition : geophysics, hydrography, sedimentology (preliminary report)(Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1971-07) Degens, Egon T. ; Deuser, Werner G. ; von Herzen, Richard P. ; Wong, How-Kin ; Wooding, Frank B. ; Jannasch, Holger W. ; Kanwisher, John W.In March 1971, seven members of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution were engaged in a multidisciplinary study of Lake Kivu. This expedition represents part of a long-range program concerned with the structural and hydrographical settings of the East African Rift Lakes and their relationships to the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden Rifts. The program started in May 1963 with a geophysical study on Lake Malawi (von Herzen and Vacquier, 1967). Several expeditions of our Institution into the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden area in 1964, 1965 and 1966 (Degens and Ross, 1969) provided detailed geological information on the "northern" extension of the East African Rift. And finally our study of last year on Lake Tanganyika c1osed a major gap in the program; it allowed us to out1ine a model on the evolution of a rift which starts with (i) bulging of the earth's crust, (ii) block-faulting, (iii) volcanism and hydrothermal activity, and which has its final stage in (iv) sea floor spreading (Degens et al. 1971). In the case of Lake Tanganyika, only the second stage of this evolution series has been reached, i.e. block-faulting. In contrast, the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden had already evolved to active sea floor spreading, almost 25 million years ago. Somewhere along the line between Lake Tanganyika and the Gulf of Aden must lie the "missing link" of this evolution series. Lake Kivu, almost 100 miles to the north of Lake Tanganyika is situated at the highest point of the Rift Valley and is surrounded by active volcanoes and geothermal springs. As recently as 1944, lava flows reached the lake shore. This lake was therefore, a natural choice to test our hypothesis on the origin and development of rifts. Furthermore, the occurrence of large quantities of dissolved gases, e.g., CO2 and methane, represented an interesting geochemical phenomenon worthwhile to investigate.
ArticleOcean Seismic Network Pilot Experiment( 2003-10-31) Stephen, Ralph A. ; Spiess, Fred N. ; Collins, John A. ; Hildebrand, John A. ; Orcutt, John A. ; Peal, Kenneth R. ; Vernon, Frank L. ; Wooding, Frank B.The primary goal of the Ocean Seismic Network Pilot Experiment (OSNPE) was to learn how to make high quality broadband seismic measurements on the ocean bottom in preparation for a permanent ocean seismic network. The experiment also had implications for the development of a capability for temporary (e.g., 1 year duration) seismic experiments on the ocean floor. Equipment for installing, operating and monitoring borehole observatories in the deep sea was also tested including a lead-in package, a logging probe, a wire line packer and a control vehicle. The control vehicle was used in three modes during the experiment: for observation of seafloor features and equipment, for equipment launch and recovery, and for power supply and telemetry between ocean bottom units and the ship. The OSNPE which was completed in June 1998 acquired almost four months of continuous data and it demonstrated clearly that a combination of shallow buried and borehole broadband sensors could provide comparable quality data to broadband seismic installations on islands and continents. Burial in soft mud appears to be adequate at frequencies below the microseism peak. Although the borehole sensor was subject to installation noise at low frequencies (0.6 to 50 mHz), analysis of the OSNPE data provides new insights into our understanding of ocean bottom ambient noise. The OSNPE results clearly demonstrate the importance of sediment borne shear modes in ocean bottom ambient noise behavior. Ambient noise drops significantly at high frequencies for a sensor placed just at the sediment basalt interface. At frequencies above the microseism peak, there are two reasons that ocean bottom stations have been generally regarded as noisier than island or land stations: ocean bottom stations are closer to the noise source (the surface gravity waves) and most ocean bottom stations to date have been installed on low rigidity sediments where they are subject to the effects of shear wave resonances. When sensors are placed in boreholes in basement the performance of ocean bottom seismic stations approaches that of continental and island stations. A broadband borehole seismic station should be included in any real-time ocean bottom observatory.