Corlett W. Bryce
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DatasetData and numerical methods for determining the dynamics and kinematics of Newark Bay, NJ( 2019-07-30) Corlett, W. Bryce ; Geyer, W. Rockwell ; Chant, Robert J. ; Ralston, David K. ; Sommerfield, Christopher K.These observational data and numerical methods were used to investigate the subtidal salt balance of Newark Bay, a sub-estuarine network connected to the Hudson River estuary through New York Harbor. The moored data were collected in 2008 by Chant and Sommerfield, and in 2016 by Corlett, Geyer, and Ralston. Corlett devised the included numerical methods. Shipboard measurements of the vertical salinity profile near each mooring were used to reconstruct the tidally-varying vertical salinity profile from near-bed and near-surface salinity measurements at each mooring. The effects of tidal processes, such as frontal advection, on the exchange flow were investigated by applying the isohaline total exchange flow (TEF) framework to the mooring-based observations in multiple reaches of the estuarine network. In addition, a TEF-based salt balance was derived for the purpose of directly comparing the TEF framework with the standard Eulerian framework.
ThesisDynamics and kinematics of an estuarine network(Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2019-09) Corlett, W. BryceThis thesis addresses the dynamics of estuarine networks, based on hydrographic observations in Newark Bay, a sub-estuarine network connected to the Hudson River estuary through New York Harbor. Estuarine networks differ from simple estuaries in that they may have multiple connections to the ocean, multiple freshwater sources, and often contain complex junctions between estuarine segments. The Newark Bay estuarine network is connected to the sea through two tidal straits, and is fed by multiple internal and external sources of fresh water. The estuarine network is also naturally divided into a series of reaches, each of which is characterized by a different cross-sectional geometry. This thesis focuses on the hydrographic variability and varying exchange flow within the Newark Bay estuarine network. Shipboard hydrographic measurements reveal the time-dependent formation of salinity fronts between reaches of the estuary. Each front is generated by a different mechanism; however, all are generated by tidal flow through channel junctions during ebb tide, and are advected landward during flood tide. Mooring-based measurements confirm that these fronts form during nearly every tidal cycle, and that the fronts are associated with substantial changes in local salinity on tidal timescales. The effect of tidal processes, such as frontal advection, on the exchange flow is investigated by applying the isohaline total exchange flow (TEF) framework to mooring-based observations in multiple reaches of the estuarine network. This reveals that over half of the exchange flow is driven by tidal processes at all sites within the estuary. Both the TEF-based salt balance and the standard Eulerian salt balance indicate that tidal processes are also responsible for at least half of the landward salt flux at most sites within the estuary; TEF and Eulerian salt balances are nearly identical. Tidal processes within the estuary are in large part associated with fronts. The large influence of tidal processes on the exchange flow in Newark Bay is thus likely due to the prevalence of channel junctions within the estuarine network.
DatasetCompiled temperature, salinity, density, and in-situ velocity sections along the north-east Chukchi Shelfbreak( 2016-07-26) Corlett, W. Bryce ; Pickart, Robert S.This data was compiled from June-Aug. 2014, and covers all historical hydrography in the north-east Chukchi shelfbreak region with in-situ velocity measurements available at the time of compilation. All data is provided as collected, and the velocity data has been detided by the Oregon State University tidal inversion software (see Padman and Erofeeva, 2004). Nine of the total 46 sections required detiding (see ‘chukchi_data_sources.pdf’), and seven of these nine required additional quality control to remove ship velocities from the record. Overall, the record extends from May 2002 through July 2014. Seasonally, the data is limited to May through October, with data from May through June only available from 2002-4. In addition, there is an absence of data between 2004 and 2009, restricting interannual analyses to be comparisons between the early (2002-4) and late (2009-14) regimes.
PreprintThe Chukchi slope current( 2017-03-15) Corlett, W. Bryce ; Pickart, Robert S.Using a collection of 46 shipboard hydrographic/velocity transects occupied across the shelfbreak and slope of the Chukchi Sea between 2002 and 2014, we have quantified the existence of a current transporting Pacific-origin water westward over the upper continental slope. It has been named the Chukchi slope current, which is believed to emanate from Barrow Canyon. The current is surface-intensified, order 50 km wide, and advects both summer and winter waters. It is not trapped to a particular isobath, but instead is reminiscent of a free jet. There is no significant variation in Pacific water transport with distance from Barrow Canyon. A potential vorticity analysis suggests that the flow is baroclinically unstable, consistent with the notion that it meanders. The current is present during all synoptic wind conditions, but increases in strength from summer to fall presumably due to the seasonal enhancement of the easterly winds in the region. Its transport increased over the 12-year period of data coverage, also likely in response to wind forcing. In the mean, the slope current transports 0.50±0.070.50±0.07 Sv of Pacific water. This estimate allows us to construct a balanced mass budget of the Chukchi shelf inflows and outflows. Our study also confirms the existence of an eastward-flowing Chukchi shelfbreak jet transporting 0.10±0.030.10±0.03 Sv of Pacific water towards Barrow Canyon.