Rypina Irina I.

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Irina I.

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Now showing 1 - 12 of 12
  • Article
    Exploring interannual variability in potential spawning habitat for Atlantic bluefin tuna in the Slope Sea
    (Elsevier, 2021-01-17) Rypina, Irina I. ; Dotzel, Michael M. ; Pratt, Lawrence J. ; Hernandez, Christina M. ; Llopiz, Joel K.
    The Slope Sea in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean, located between the Gulf Stream and the continental shelf of the Northeast United States, is a recently-documented possible major spawning ground for Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus). Larval surveys and a habitat modeling study have shown that suitable spawning habitat occurs in the Slope Sea, but the degree to which this habitat varies interannually is an open question. Here, we perform a decade-long (2009–2018) numerical modeling analysis, with simulated larvae released uniformly throughout the Slope Sea, to investigate the interannual variability in the water temperature and circulation criteria deemed necessary for successful spawning. We also quantify the influence of Gulf Stream meanders and overshoot events on larval retention and their effect on habitat suitability rates throughout the Slope Sea, defined as the percentage of simulated larvae released at a given location that satisfy criteria related to water temperature and retention near nursery habitat. Average environmental oceanographic conditions over the decade are most favorable in the western part of the Slope Sea, specifically in the Slope Gyre and away from the immediate vicinity of the Gulf Stream. Variability in domain- and summertime-averaged yearly spawning habitat suitability rates is up to 25% of the mean decadal-averaged values. Yearly habitat suitability correlates strongly with the Gulf Stream overshoot but does not correlate well with other oceanographic variables or indices, so an overshoot index can be used as a sole oceanographic proxy for predicting yearly bluefin spawning habitat suitability in the Slope Sea. Selective spawning can weaken the correlation between habitat suitability and Gulf Stream overshoot. Effort should be put towards collecting observational data against which we could validate our findings.
  • Article
    The influence of an eddy in the success rates and distributions of passively advected or actively swimming biological organisms crossing the continental slope
    (American Meteorological Society, 2020-06-29) Rypina, Irina I. ; Pratt, Lawrence J. ; Entner, Samuel ; Anderson, Amanda ; Cherian, Deepak A.
    The Lagrangian characteristics of the surface flow field arising when an idealized, anticyclonic, mesoscale, isolated deep-ocean eddy collides with continental slope and shelf topography are explored. In addition to fluid parcel trajectories, we consider the trajectories of biological organisms that are able to navigate and swim, and for which shallow water is a destination. Of particular interest is the movement of organisms initially located in the offshore eddy, the manner in which the eddy influences the ability of the organisms to reach the shelf break, and the spatial and temporal distributions of organisms that do so. For nonswimmers or very slow swimmers, the organisms arrive at the shelf break in distinct pulses, with different pulses occurring at different locations along the shelf break. This phenomenon is closely related to the episodic formation of trailing vortices that are formed after the eddy collides with the continental slope, turns, and travels parallel to the coast. Analysis based on finite-time Lyapunov exponents reveals initial locations of all successful trajectories reaching the shoreline, and provides maps of the transport pathways showing that much of the cross-shelf-break transport occurs in the lee of the eddy as it moves parallel to the shore. The same analysis shows that the onshore transport is interrupted after a trailing vortex detaches. As the swimming speeds are increased, the organisms are influenced less by the eddy and tend to show up en mass and in a single pulse.
  • Article
    Search and rescue at sea aided by hidden flow structures
    (Nature Communications, 2020-05-26) Serra, Mattia ; Sathe, Pratik ; Rypina, Irina I. ; Kirincich, Anthony R. ; Ross, Shane D. ; Lermusiaux, Pierre F. J. ; Allen, Arthur ; Peacock, Thomas ; Haller, George
    Every year, hundreds of people die at sea because of vessel and airplane accidents. A key challenge in reducing the number of these fatalities is to make Search and Rescue (SAR) algorithms more efficient. Here, we address this challenge by uncovering hidden TRansient Attracting Profiles (TRAPs) in ocean-surface velocity data. Computable from a single velocity-field snapshot, TRAPs act as short-term attractors for all floating objects. In three different ocean field experiments, we show that TRAPs computed from measured as well as modeled velocities attract deployed drifters and manikins emulating people fallen in the water. TRAPs, which remain hidden to prior flow diagnostics, thus provide critical information for hazard responses, such as SAR and oil spill containment, and hence have the potential to save lives and limit environmental disasters.
  • Article
    Observing and quantifying ocean flow properties using drifters with drogues at different depths
    (American Meteorological Society, 2021-07-16) Rypina, Irina I. ; Getscher, Timothy ; Pratt, Lawrence J. ; Mourre, Baptiste
    This paper presents analyses of drifters with drogues at different depths—1, 10, 30, and 50 m—that were deployed in the Mediterranean Sea to investigate frontal subduction and upwelling. Drifter trajectories were used to estimate divergence, vorticity, vertical velocity, and finite-size Lyapunov exponents (FTLEs) and to investigate the balance of terms in the vorticity equation. The divergence and vorticity are O(f) and change sign along trajectories. Vertical velocity is O(1 mm s−1), increases with depth, indicates predominant upwelling with isolated downwelling events, and sometimes changes sign between 1 and 50 m. Vortex stretching is one of the significant terms, but not the only one, in the vorticity balance. Two-dimensional FTLEs are 2 × 10−5 s−1 after 1 day, 2 times as large as in a 400-m-resolution numerical model. Three-dimensional FTLEs are 50% larger than 2D FTLEs and are dominated by the vertical shear of horizontal velocity. Bootstrapping suggests uncertainty levels of ~10% of the time-mean absolute values for divergence and vorticity. Analysis of simulated drifters in a model suggests that drifter-based estimates of divergence and vorticity are close to the Eulerian model estimates, except when drifters get aligned into long filaments. Drifter-based vertical velocity is close to the Eulerian model estimates at 1 m but differs at deeper depths. The errors in the vertical velocity are largely due to the lateral separation between drifters at different depths and are partially due to only measuring at four depths. Overall, this paper demonstrates how drifters, heretofore restricted to 2D near-surface observations, can be used to learn about 3D flow properties throughout the upper layer of the water column.
  • Article
    Support for the Slope Sea as a major spawning ground for Atlantic bluefin tuna: evidence from larval abundance, growth rates, and particle-tracking simulations
    (Canadian Science Publishing, 2021-10-20) Hernández, Christina M. ; Richardson, David E. ; Rypina, Irina I. ; Chen, Ke ; Marancik, Katrin E. ; Shulzitsk, Kathryn ; Llopiz, Joel K.
    Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) are commercially and ecologically valuable, but management is complicated by their highly migratory lifestyle. Recent collections of bluefin tuna larvae in the Slope Sea off northeastern United States have opened questions about how this region contributes to population dynamics. We analyzed larvae collected in the Slope Sea and the Gulf of Mexico in 2016 to estimate larval abundance and growth rates and used a high-resolution regional ocean circulation model to estimate spawning locations and larval transport. We did not detect a regional difference in growth rates, but found that Slope Sea larvae were larger than Gulf of Mexico larvae prior to exogenous feeding. Slope Sea larvae generally backtracked to locations north of Cape Hatteras and would have been retained within the Slope Sea until the early juvenile stage. Overall, our results provide supporting evidence that the Slope Sea is a major spawning ground that is likely to be important for population dynamics. Further study of larvae and spawning adults in the region should be prioritized to support management decisions.
  • Article
    Spreading pathways of Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station wastewater in and around Cape Cod Bay: Estimates from ocean drifter observations
    (Elsevier, 2022-10-19) Rypina, Irina I. ; Macdonald, Alison ; Yoshida, Sachiko ; Manning, James P. ; Gregory, Margaret ; Rozen, Nimrod ; Buesseler, Ken
    Near-surface drifter observations were used to study the spreading pathways in and around the Cape Cod Bay from a source region located just offshore of the Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station. The study was motivated by the recent closing of the power plant and a possible release of accumulated wastewater. The investigation applies several different techniques to the drifter data set to estimate and quantify various aspects of the circulation and spreading. Our goal was two-fold: first, to better understand and predict the fate of the Pilgrim wastewater should it be released; and second, to review, compare, and contrast several useful techniques that can be applied to drifter datasets in other parts of the global ocean. Our analysis suggests weaker spreading of the wastewater plume inside the Bay than outside, and sensitivity of the advection pathways to the location of the release. Statistical techniques predicted that part of the plume would likely be advected cyclonically around the inner coastline of the Bay towards the more quiescent eastern regions, while another part of the plume would likely pass close to the tip of Cape Cod and the beaches of the Outer Cape. For the soluble radionuclides, the levels observed in our statistical model offshore of Provincetown and Dennis/Brewster will be at least 100 times smaller than the initial concentrations.
  • Article
    Applying dynamical systems techniques to real ocean drifters
    (European Geosciences Union, 2022-10-07) Rypina, Irina I ; Getscher, Timothy ; Pratt, Lawrence J ; Ozgokmen, Tamay
    This paper presents the first comprehensive comparison of several different dynamical-systems-based measures of stirring and Lagrangian coherence, computed from real ocean drifters. Seven commonly used methods (finite-time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE), trajectory path length, trajectory correlation dimension, trajectory encounter volume, Lagrangian-averaged vorticity deviation, dilation, and spectral clustering) were applied to 144 surface drifters in the Gulf of Mexico in order to map out the dominant Lagrangian coherent structures. Among the detected structures were regions of hyperbolic nature resembling stable manifolds from classical examples, divergent and convergent zones, and groups of drifters that moved more coherently and stayed closer together than the rest of the drifters. Many methods highlighted the same structures, but there were differences too. Overall, five out of seven methods provided useful information about the geometry of transport within the domain spanned by the drifters, whereas the path length and correlation dimension methods were less useful than others.
  • Article
    The Western Alboran Gyre: an analysis of its properties and its exchange with surrounding water
    (American Meteorological Society, 2020-11-18) Brett, Genevieve ; Pratt, Lawrence J. ; Rypina, Irina I. ; Sánchez-Garrido, José C.
    One of the largest and most persistent features in the Alboran Sea is the Western Alboran Gyre (WAG), an anticyclonic recirculation bounded by the Atlantic Jet (AJ) to the north and the Moroccan coast to the south. Eulerian budgets from several months of a high-resolution model run are used to examine the exchange of water across the Eulerian WAG’s boundary and the processes affecting the salinity, temperature, and vorticity of the WAG. The volume transport across the sides of the WAG is found to be related to vertical isopycnal movement at the base of the gyre. Advection is found to drive a decay in the salinity minimum and anticyclonic vorticity of the Eulerian WAG. Given the large contributions of advection, a Lagrangian analysis is performed, revealing geometric aspects of the exchange that are hidden in an Eulerian view. In particular, stable and unstable manifolds identify a stirring region around the outer reaches of the gyre where water is exchanged with the WAG on a time scale of weeks. Its complement is an inner core that expands with depth and exchanges water with its surroundings on much longer time scales. The 3D evolution of one parcel, or lobe, of water as it enters the WAG is also described, identifying a general Lagrangian subduction pathway.
  • Dataset
    Data from the 2018 dye release cruise south of Martha’s Vineyard, MA
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2021-06-24) Rypina, Irina I. ; Kirincich, Anthony R. ; Peacock, Thomas
    On Aug 16-17, 2018 a rhodamine dye experiment was conducted in the coastal ocean south of Martha’s Vineyard, MA. One of the experiment’s aims was to investigate the exchanges, or the absence of such, between the mixed layer and the ocean underneath over a time scale of about a day.
  • Article
    Tracking a surrogate hazardous agent (Rhodamine Dye) in a coastal ocean environment using In Situ measurements and concentration estimates derived from drone images
    (MDPI, 2021-11-02) Filippi, Margaux ; Hanlon, Regina ; Rypina, Irina I. ; Hodges, Benjamin A. ; Peacock, Thomas ; Schmale, David G.
    New tools and technology are needed to track hazardous agents such as oil and red tides in our oceans. Rhodamine dye (a surrogate hazardous agent) was released into the Atlantic ocean in August 2018, and experiments were conducted to track the movement of the dye near the water surface within three hours following the release. A DrOne Water Sampling SystEm (DOWSE), consisting of a 3D-printed sampling device tethered to a drone, was used to collect 26 water samples at different locations around the dye plume. Rhodamine concentrations were measured from the drone water samples using a fluorometer and ranged from 1 to 93 ppb. Dye images were taken during the drone-sampling of surface water containing dye and at about 10 m above the sampling point. These images were post-processed to estimate dye concentrations across the sampling domain. A comparison of calibrated heat maps showed that the altitude images yielded dye distributions that were qualitatively similar to those from images taken near the ocean surface. Moreover, the association between red ratios and dye concentrations yielded trendlines explaining up to 67% of the variation. Drones may be used to detect, track and assist in mitigating hazardous agents in the future.
  • Technical Report
    CALYPSO 2019 Cruise Report: field campaign in the Mediterranean
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2020-01) Mahadevan, Amala ; D'Asaro, Eric A. ; Allen, John T. ; Almaraz García, Pablo ; Alou-Font, Eva ; Aravind, Harilal Meenambika ; Balaguer, Pau ; Caballero, Isabel ; Calafat, Noemi ; Carbornero, Andrea ; Casas, Benjamin ; Castilla, Carlos ; Centurioni, Luca R. ; Conley, Margaret ; Cristofano, Gino ; Cutolo, Eugenio ; Dever, Mathieu ; Enrique Navarro, Angélica ; Falcieri, Francesco ; Freilich, Mara ; Goodwin, Evan ; Graham, Raymond ; Guigand, Cedric ; Hodges, Benjamin A. ; Huntley, Helga ; Johnston, T. M. Shaun ; Lankhorst, Matthias ; Lermusiaux, Pierre F. J. ; Lizaran, Irene ; Mirabito, Chris ; Miralles, A. ; Mourre, Baptiste ; Navarro, Gabriel ; Ohmart, Michael ; Ouala, Said ; Ozgokmen, Tamay M. ; Pascual, Ananda ; Pou, Joan Mateu Horrach ; Poulain, Pierre Marie ; Ren, Alice ; Tarry, Daniel R. ; Rudnick, Daniel L. ; Rubio, M. ; Ruiz, Simon ; Rypina, Irina I. ; Tintore, Joaquin ; Send, Uwe ; Shcherbina, Andrey Y. ; Torner, Marc ; Salvador-Vieira, Guilherme ; Wirth, Nikolaus ; Zarokanellos, Nikolaos
    This cruise aimed to identify transport pathways from the surface into the interior ocean during the late winter in the Alborán sea between the Strait of Gibraltar (5°40’W) and the prime meridian. Theory and previous observations indicated that these pathways likely originated at strong fronts, such as the one that separates salty Mediterranean water and the fresher water in owing from the Atlantic. Our goal was to map such pathways and quantify their transport. Since the outcropping isopycnals at the front extend to the deepest depths during the late winter, we planned the cruise at the end of the Spring, prior to the onset of thermal stratification of the surface mixed layer.
  • Article
    Review of oceanic mesoscale processes in the North Pacific: physical and biogeochemical impacts
    (Elsevier, 2023-02-20) Ueno, Hiromichi ; Bracco, Annalisa ; Barth, John A. ; Budyansky, Maxim V. ; Hasegawa, Daisuke ; Itoh, Sachihiko ; Kim, Sung Yong ; Ladd, Carol ; Lin, Xiaopei ; Park, Young-Gyu ; Prants, Sergey ; Ross, Tetjana ; Rypina, Irina I. ; Sasai, Yoshikazu ; Trusenkova, Olga O. ; Ustinova, Elena I. ; Zhong, Yisen
    Mesoscale eddies impact the marine ecosystem of the North Pacific and its marginal Seas.•Impacts vary with time and regions. Knowns and unknowns are summarized.•How climate change will modify mesoscale processes remains a key open challenge.Physical transport dynamics occurring at the ocean mesoscale (∼20 km – 200 km) largely determine the environment in which biogeochemical processes occur. As a result, understanding and modeling mesoscale transport is crucial for determining the physical modulations of the marine ecosystem. This review synthesizes current knowledge of mesoscale eddies and their impacts on the marine ecosystem across most of the North Pacific and its marginal Seas. The North Pacific domain north of 20°N is divided in four regions, and for each region known, unknowns and known-unknowns are summarized with a focus on physical properties, physical-biogeochemical interactions, and the impacts of climate variability and change on the eddy field and on the marine ecosystem.