Marshall John

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  • Article
    Impact of current-wind interaction on vertical processes in the Southern Ocean
    (American Geophysical Union, 2020-03-17) Song, Hajoon ; Marshall, John C. ; McGillicuddy, Dennis J. ; Seo, Hyodae
    Momentum input from westerly winds blowing over the Southern Ocean can be modulated by mesoscale surface currents and result in changes in large‐scale ocean circulation. Here, using an eddy‐resolving 1/20 degree ocean model configured near Drake Passage, we evaluate the impact of current‐wind interaction on vertical processes. We find a reduction in momentum input from the wind, reduced eddy kinetic energy, and a modification of Ekman pumping rates. Wind stress curl resulting from current‐wind interaction leads to net upward motion, while the nonlinear Ekman pumping term associated with horizontal gradients of relative vorticity induces net downward motion. The spatially averaged mixed layer depth estimated using a density criteria is shoaled slightly by current‐wind interaction. Current‐wind interaction, on the other hand, enhances the stratification in the thermocline below the mixed layer. Such changes have the potential to alter biogeochemical processes including nutrient supply, biological productivity, and air‐sea carbon dioxide exchange.
  • Preprint
    Mechanisms controlling the SST air-sea heat flux feedback and its dependence on spatial scale
    ( 2016-04-05) Hausmann, Ute ; Czaja, Arnaud ; Marshall, John
    The turbulent air-sea heat flux feedback (α, in W m-2 K-1) is a major contributor to setting the damping timescale of sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies. In this study we compare the spatial distribution and magnitude of α in the North Atlantic and the Southern Ocean, as estimated from the ERA-Interim reanalysis dataset. The comparison is rationalized in terms of an upper bound on the heat flux feedback, associated with \fast" atmospheric export of temperature and moisture anomalies away from the marine boundary layer, and a lower bound associated with "slow" export. It is found that regions of cold surface waters (≤10°C) are best described as approaching the slow export limit. This conclusion is not only valid at the synoptic scale resolved by the reanalysis data, but also on basin scales. In particular, it applies to the heat flux feedback acting as circumpolar SST anomaly scales are approached in the Southern Ocean, with feedbacks of ≤10 W m-2 K-1. In contrast, the magnitude of the heat flux feed-back is close to that expected from the fast export limit over the Gulf Stream and its recirculation with values on the order of ≈40 W m-2 K-1. Further analysis suggests that this high value reflects a compensation between a moderate thermo-dynamic adjustment of the boundary layer, which tends to weaken the heat flux feedback, and an enhancement of the surface winds over warm SST anomalies, which tend to enhance the feedback.
  • Article
    Mesoscale modulation of air-sea CO2 flux in Drake Passage
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2016-09-10) Song, Hajoon ; Marshall, John ; Munro, David R. ; Dutkiewicz, Stephanie ; Sweeney, Colm ; McGillicuddy, Dennis J. ; Hausmann, Ute
    We investigate the role of mesoscale eddies in modulating air-sea CO2 flux and associated biogeochemical fields in Drake Passage using in situ observations and an eddy-resolving numerical model. Both observations and model show a negative correlation between temperature and partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) anomalies at the sea surface in austral summer, indicating that warm/cold anticyclonic/cyclonic eddies take up more/less CO2. In austral winter, in contrast, relationships are reversed: warm/cold anticyclonic/cyclonic eddies are characterized by a positive/negative pCO2 anomaly and more/less CO2 outgassing. It is argued that DIC-driven effects on pCO2 are greater than temperature effects in austral summer, leading to a negative correlation. In austral winter, however, the reverse is true. An eddy-centric analysis of the model solution reveals that nitrate and iron respond differently to the same vertical mixing: vertical mixing has a greater impact on iron because its normalized vertical gradient at the base of the surface mixed layer is an order of magnitude greater than that of nitrate.
  • Article
    Observational inferences of lateral eddy diffusivity in the halocline of the Beaufort Gyre
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2017-12-26) Meneghello, Gianluca ; Marshall, John ; Cole, Sylvia T. ; Timmermans, Mary-Louise
    Using Ekman pumping rates mediated by sea ice in the Arctic Ocean's Beaufort Gyre (BG), the magnitude of lateral eddy diffusivities required to balance downward pumping is inferred. In this limit—that of vanishing residual-mean circulation—eddy-induced upwelling exactly balances downward pumping. The implied eddy diffusivity varies spatially and decays with depth, with values of 50–400 m2/s. Eddy diffusivity estimated using mixing length theory applied to BG mooring data exhibits a similar decay with depth and range of values from 100 m2/s to more than 600 m2/s. We conclude that eddy diffusivities in the BG are likely large enough to balance downward Ekman pumping, arresting the deepening of the gyre and suggesting that eddies play a zero-order role in buoyancy and freshwater budgets of the BG.
  • Article
    Observed mesoscale eddy signatures in Southern Ocean surface mixed-layer depth
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2017-01-27) Hausmann, Ute ; McGillicuddy, Dennis J. ; Marshall, John
    Combining satellite altimetry with Argo profile data a systematic observational estimate of mesoscale eddy signatures in surface mixed-layer depth (MLD) is provided across the Southern Ocean (SO). Eddy composite MLD anomalies are shallow in cyclones, deep in anticyclones, and increase in magnitude with eddy amplitude. Their magnitudes show a pronounced seasonal modulation roughly following the depth of the climatological mixed layer. Weak eddies of the relatively quiescent SO subtropics feature peak late-winter perturbations of ±10 m. Much larger MLD perturbations occur over the vigorous eddies originating along the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) and SO western boundary current systems, with late-winter peaks of −30 m and +60 m in the average over cyclonic and anticyclonic eddy cores (a difference of ≈ 100 m). The asymmetry between modest shallow cyclonic and pronounced deep anticyclonic anomalies is systematic and not accompanied by corresponding asymmetries in eddy amplitude. Nonetheless, the net deepening of the climatological SO mixed layer by this asymmetry in eddy MLD perturbations is estimated to be small (few meters). Eddies are shown to enhance SO MLD variability with peaks in late winter and eddy-intense regions. Anomalously deep late-winter mixed layers occur disproportionately within the cores of anticyclonic eddies, suggesting the mesoscale heightens the frequency of deep winter surface-mixing events along the eddy-intense regions of the SO. The eddy modulation in MLD reported here provides a pathway via which the oceanic mesoscale can impact air-sea fluxes of heat and carbon, the ventilation of water masses, and biological productivity across the SO.
  • Article
    Seasonal variation in the correlation between anomalies of sea level and chlorophyll in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2018-05-30) Song, Hajoon ; Long, Matthew C. ; Gaube, Peter ; Frenger, Ivy ; Marshall, John ; McGillicuddy, Dennis J.
    The Antarctic Circumpolar Current has highly energetic mesoscale phenomena, but their impacts on phytoplankton biomass, productivity, and biogeochemical cycling are not understood well. We analyze satellite observations and an eddy‐rich ocean model to show that they drive chlorophyll anomalies of opposite sign in winter versus summer. In winter, deeper mixed layers in positive sea surface height (SSH) anomalies reduce light availability, leading to anomalously low chlorophyll concentrations. In summer with abundant light, however, positive SSH anomalies show elevated chlorophyll concentration due to higher iron level, and an iron budget analysis reveals that anomalously strong vertical mixing enhances iron supply to the mixed layer. Features with negative SSH anomalies exhibit the opposite tendencies: higher chlorophyll concentration in winter and lower in summer. Our results suggest that mesoscale modulation of iron supply, light availability, and vertical mixing plays an important role in causing systematic variations in primary productivity over the seasonal cycle.
  • Article
    Seasonally derived components of the Canada Basin halocline
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2017-05-26) Timmermans, Mary-Louise ; Marshall, John ; Proshutinsky, Andrey ; Scott, Jeffery
    The Arctic halocline stratification is an important barrier to the transport of deep ocean heat to the underside of sea ice. Surface water in the Chukchi Sea, warmed in summer by solar radiation, ventilates the Canada Basin halocline to create a warm layer below the mixed-layer base. The year-round persistence of this layer is shown to be consistent with the seasonal cycle of halocline ventilation. We present hydrographic observations and model results to show how Chukchi Sea density outcrops migrate seasonally as surface fluxes modify salinity and temperature. This migration is such that in winter, isopycnals bounding the warm halocline are blocked from ventilation, while the cool, relatively salty and deeper halocline layers are ventilated. In this way, the warm halocline is isolated by stratification (both vertically and laterally) each winter. Results shed light on the fate and impact to sea ice of the warm halocline under future freshening and warming of the surface Arctic Ocean.
  • Article
    “Climate response functions” for the Arctic Ocean : a proposed coordinated modelling experiment
    (Copernicus Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union, 2017-07-21) Marshall, John ; Scott, Jeffery ; Proshutinsky, Andrey
    A coordinated set of Arctic modelling experiments, which explore how the Arctic responds to changes in external forcing, is proposed. Our goal is to compute and compare "climate response functions" (CRFs) – the transient response of key observable indicators such as sea-ice extent, freshwater content of the Beaufort Gyre, etc. – to abrupt "step" changes in forcing fields across a number of Arctic models. Changes in wind, freshwater sources, and inflows to the Arctic basin are considered. Convolutions of known or postulated time series of these forcing fields with their respective CRFs then yield the (linear) response of these observables. This allows the project to inform, and interface directly with, Arctic observations and observers and the climate change community. Here we outline the rationale behind such experiments and illustrate our approach in the context of a coarse-resolution model of the Arctic based on the MITgcm. We conclude by summarizing the expected benefits of such an activity and encourage other modelling groups to compute CRFs with their own models so that we might begin to document their robustness to model formulation, resolution, and parameterization.