Zhang Wei

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  • Preprint
    Scaling for turbulent viscosity of buoyant plumes in stratified fluids : PIV measurement with implications for submarine hydrothermal plume turbulence
    ( 2017-10-07) Zhang, Wei ; He, Zhiguo ; Jiang, Houshuo
    Time-resolved particle image velocimetry (PIV) has been used to measure instantaneous twodimensional velocity vector fields of laboratory-generated turbulent buoyant plumes in linearly stratified saltwater over extended periods of time. From PIV-measured time-series flow data, characteristics of plume mean flow and turbulence have been quantified. To be specific, maximum plume penetration scaling and entrainment coefficient determined from the mean flow agree well with the theory based on the entrainment hypothesis for buoyant plumes in stratified fluids. Besides the well-known persistent entrainment along the plume stem (i.e., the ‘plumestem’ entrainment), the mean plume velocity field shows persistent entrainment along the outer edge of the plume cap (i.e., the ‘plume-cap’ entrainment), thereby confirming predictions from previous numerical simulation studies. To our knowledge, the present PIV investigation provides the first measured flow field data in the plume cap region. As to measured plume turbulence, both the turbulent kinetic energy field and the turbulence dissipation rate field attain their maximum close to the source, while the turbulent viscosity field reaches its maximum within the plume cap region; the results also show that maximum turbulent viscosity scales as νt,max = 0.030 (B/N)1/2, where B is source buoyancy flux and N is ambient buoyancy frequency. These PIV data combined with previously published numerical simulation results have implications for understanding the roles of hydrothermal plume turbulence, i.e. plume turbulence within the cap region causes the ‘plume-cap’ entrainment that plays an equally important role as the ‘plume-stem’ entrainment in supplying the final volume flux at the plume spreading level.
  • Article
    Sensitivity of northwest Australian tropical cyclone activity to ITCZ migration since 500 CE
    (American Association for the Advancement of Science, 2023-01) Denniston, Rhawn F. ; Ummenhofer, Caroline C. ; Emanuel, Kerry ; Ingrosso, Roberto ; Pausata, Francesco S. R. ; Wanamaker, Alan D. ; Lachniet, Matthew S. ; Carr, Kenneth T. ; Asmerom, Yemane ; Polyak, Victor J. ; Nott, Jonathan ; Zhang, Wei ; Villarini, Gabriele ; Cugley, John ; Brooks, Darren ; Woods, David ; Humphreys, William F.
    Tropical cyclones (TCs) regularly form in association with the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), and thus, its positioning has implications for global TC activity. While the poleward extent of the ITCZ has varied markedly over past centuries, the sensitivity with which TCs responded remains poorly understood from the proxy record, particularly in the Southern Hemisphere. Here, we present a high-resolution, composite stalagmite record of ITCZ migrations over tropical Australia for the past 1500 years. When integrated with a TC reconstruction from the Australian subtropics, this time series, along with downscaled climate model simulations, provides an unprecedented examination of the dependence of subtropical TC activity on meridional shifts in the ITCZ. TCs tracked the ITCZ at multidecadal to centennial scales, with a more southward position enhancing TC-derived rainfall in the subtropics. TCs may play an increasingly important role in Western Australia's moisture budgets as subtropical aridity increases due to anthropogenic warming.