Sabine Chris L.

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Sabine
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Chris L.
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Using present-day observations to detect when anthropogenic change forces surface ocean carbonate chemistry outside preindustrial bounds

2016-09-13 , Sutton, Adrienne J. , Sabine, Chris L. , Feely, Richard A. , Cai, Wei-Jun , Cronin, Meghan F. , McPhaden, Michael J. , Morell, Julio M. , Newton, Jan A. , Noh, Jae Hoon , Ólafsdóttir, Sólveig R. , Salisbury, Joseph E. , Send, Uwe , Vandemark, Douglas , Weller, Robert A.

One of the major challenges to assessing the impact of ocean acidification on marine life is detecting and interpreting long-term change in the context of natural variability. This study addresses this need through a global synthesis of monthly pH and aragonite saturation state (Ωarag) climatologies for 12 open ocean, coastal, and coral reef locations using 3-hourly moored observations of surface seawater partial pressure of CO2 and pH collected together since as early as 2010. Mooring observations suggest open ocean subtropical and subarctic sites experience present-day surface pH and Ωarag conditions outside the bounds of preindustrial variability throughout most, if not all, of the year. In general, coastal mooring sites experience more natural variability and thus, more overlap with preindustrial conditions; however, present-day Ωarag conditions surpass biologically relevant thresholds associated with ocean acidification impacts on Mytilus californianus (Ωarag < 1.8) and Crassostrea gigas (Ωarag < 2.0) larvae in the California Current Ecosystem (CCE) and Mya arenaria larvae in the Gulf of Maine (Ωarag < 1.6). At the most variable mooring locations in coastal systems of the CCE, subseasonal conditions approached Ωarag =  1. Global and regional models and data syntheses of ship-based observations tended to underestimate seasonal variability compared to mooring observations. Efforts such as this to characterize all patterns of pH and Ωarag variability and change at key locations are fundamental to assessing present-day biological impacts of ocean acidification, further improving experimental design to interrogate organism response under real-world conditions, and improving predictive models and vulnerability assessments seeking to quantify the broader impacts of ocean acidification.

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Changes in ocean heat, carbon content, and ventilation : a review of the first decade of GO-SHIP Global Repeat Hydrography

2015-05-30 , Talley, Lynne D. , Feely, Richard A. , Sloyan, Bernadette M. , Wanninkhof, Rik , Baringer, Molly O. , Bullister, John L. , Carlson, Craig A. , Doney, Scott C. , Fine, Rana A. , Firing, Eric , Gruber, Nicolas , Hansell, Dennis A. , Ishii, Masayoshi , Johnson, Gregory , Katsumata, K. , Key, Robert M. , Kramp, Martin , Langdon, Chris , Macdonald, Alison M. , Mathis, Jeremy T. , McDonagh, Elaine L. , Mecking, Sabine , Millero, Frank J. , Mordy, Calvin W. , Nakano, T. , Sabine, Chris L. , Smethie, William M. , Swift, James H. , Tanhua, Toste , Thurnherr, Andreas M. , Warner, Mark J. , Zhang, Jia-Zhong

The ocean, a central component of Earth’s climate system, is changing. Given the global scope of these changes, highly accurate measurements of physical and biogeochemical properties need to be conducted over the full water column, spanning the ocean basins from coast to coast, and repeated every decade at a minimum, with a ship-based observing system. Since the late 1970s, when the Geochemical Ocean Sections Study (GEOSECS) conducted the first global survey of this kind, the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) and Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS), and now the Global Ocean Ship-based Hydrographic Investigations Program (GO-SHIP) have collected these “reference standard” data that allow quantification of ocean heat and carbon uptake, and variations in salinity, oxygen, nutrients, and acidity on basin scales. The evolving GO-SHIP measurement suite also provides new global information about dissolved organic carbon, a large bioactive reservoir of carbon.