Chaikeeratisak Vorrapon

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  • Article
    Interaction of pathogenic vibrio bacteria with the blood clot of the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei
    (Marine Biological Laboratory, 2014-04-01) Chaikeeratisak, Vorrapon ; Tassanakajon, Anchalee ; Armstrong, Peter B.
    In addition to its roles in hemostasis and wound repair, the blood clot plays an underappreciated role in innate immunity, where the established clot serves as a barrier to microbial penetration into the internal milieu and where the early clot entraps and immobilizes microbes that have entered wounds to the integuments. In this report we document the behavior of the pathogenic gram-negative bacterium Vibrio harveyi that has been entrapped in the fabric of the extracellular blood clot of one of its target organisms, the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. The freshly entrapped bacteria are held tightly by the clot, losing even Brownian motility, but by 1 h post-entrapment, a fraction of the bacteria have established small domains of fibrinolysis that enlarge progressively, enabling bacteria to escape from the clot's embrace. Escape is dependent on the actions of both serine- and metallo-proteases released from the bacterial cells.