Taylor Edwin W.
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PreprintSelf-organization of actin filament orientation in the dendritic-nucleation/array-treadmilling model( 2006-11-16) Schaus, Thomas E. ; Taylor, Edwin W. ; Borisy, Gary G.The dendritic-nucleation/array-treadmilling model provides a conceptual framework for the generation of the actin network driving motile cells. We have incorporated it into a 2-D, stochastic computer model to study lamellipodia via the self-organization of filament orientation patterns. Essential dendritic-nucleation sub-models were incorporated, including discretized actin monomer diffusion, Monte-Carlo filament kinetics, and flexible filament and plasma membrane mechanics. Model parameters were estimated from the literature and simulation, providing values for the extent of the leading edge branching/capping-protective zone (5.4 nm) and the auto-catalytic branch rate (0.43 /s). For a given set of parameters the system evolved to a steady state filament count and velocity, at which total branching and capping rates were equal only for specific orientations; net capping eliminated others. The standard parameter set evoked a sharp preference for the ±35 deg. filaments seen in lamellipodial electron micrographs, requiring ~ 12 generations of successive branching to adapt to a 15 deg. change in protrusion direction. This pattern was robust with respect to membrane surface and bending energies and to actin concentrations, but required protection from capping at the leading edge and branching angles greater than 60 deg. A +70/0/-70 deg. pattern was formed with flexible filaments ~ 100 nm or longer and with velocities less than ~ 20% of free polymerization rates.
ArticleIntrinsic dynamic behavior of fascin in filopodia(American Society for Cell Biology, 2007-08-01) Aratyn, Yvonne S. ; Schaus, Thomas E. ; Taylor, Edwin W. ; Borisy, Gary G.Recent studies showed that the actin cross-linking protein, fascin, undergoes rapid cycling between filopodial filaments. Here, we used an experimental and computational approach to dissect features of fascin exchange and incorporation in filopodia. Using expression of phosphomimetic fascin mutants, we determined that fascin in the phosphorylated state is primarily freely diffusing, whereas actin bundling in filopodia is accomplished by fascin dephosphorylated at serine 39. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching analysis revealed that fascin rapidly dissociates from filopodial filaments with a kinetic off-rate of 0.12 s–1 and that it undergoes diffusion at moderate rates with a coefficient of 6 µm2s–1. This kinetic off-rate was recapitulated in vitro, indicating that dynamic behavior is intrinsic to the fascin cross-linker. A computational reaction–diffusion model showed that reversible cross-linking is required for the delivery of fascin to growing filopodial tips at sufficient rates. Analysis of fascin bundling indicated that filopodia are semiordered bundles with one bound fascin per 25–60 actin monomers.