Jenssen Bjørn M.

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Bjørn M.

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  • Article
    A crude awakening: effects of crude oil on lipid metabolism in calanoid copepods terminating diapause
    (University of Chicago Press, 2019-10-04) Skottene, Elise ; Tarrant, Ann M. ; Olsen, Anders J. ; Altin, Dag ; Hansen, Bjørn Henrik ; Choquet, Marvin ; Olsen, Rolf Erik ; Jenssen, Bjørn M.
    Calanus finmarchicus and Calanus glacialis are keystone zooplankton species in North Atlantic and Arctic marine ecosystems because they form a link in the trophic transfer of nutritious lipids from phytoplankton to predators on higher trophic levels. These calanoid copepods spend several months of the year in deep waters in a dormant state called diapause, after which they emerge in surface waters to feed and reproduce during the spring phytoplankton bloom. Disruption of diapause timing could have dramatic consequences for marine ecosystems. In the present study, Calanus C5 copepodites were collected in a Norwegian fjord during diapause and were subsequently experimentally exposed to the water-soluble fraction of a naphthenic North Sea crude oil during diapause termination. The copepods were sampled repeatedly while progressing toward adulthood and were analyzed for utilization of lipid stores and for differential expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism. Our results indicate that water-soluble fraction exposure led to a temporary pause in lipid catabolism, suggested by (i) slower utilization of lipid stores in water-soluble fraction-exposed C5 copepodites and (ii) more genes in the β-oxidation pathway being downregulated in water-soluble fraction-exposed C5 copepodites than in the control C5 copepodites. Because lipid content and/or composition may be an important trigger for termination of diapause, our results imply that the timing of diapause termination and subsequent migration to the surface may be delayed if copepods are exposed to oil pollution during diapause or diapause termination. This delay could have detrimental effects on ecosystem dynamics.
  • Article
    The beta-oxidation pathway is downregulated during diapause termination in Calanus copepods
    (Nature Research, 2019-11-13) Skottene, Elise ; Tarrant, Ann M. ; Olsen, Anders J. ; Altin, Dag ; Østensen, Mari-Ann ; Hansen, Bjørn Henrik ; Choquet, Marvin ; Jenssen, Bjørn M. ; Olsen, Rolf Erik
    Calanus copepods are keystone species in marine ecosystems, mainly due to their high lipid content, which is a nutritious food source for e.g. juvenile fish. Accumulated lipids are catabolized to meet energy requirements during dormancy (diapause), which occurs during the last copepodite stage (C5). The current knowledge of lipid degradation pathways during diapause termination is limited. We characterized changes in lipid fullness and generated transcriptional profiles in C5s during termination of diapause and progression towards adulthood. Lipid fullness of C5s declined linearly during developmental progression, but more β-oxidation genes were upregulated in early C5s compared to late C5s and adults. We identified four possible master regulators of energy metabolism, which all were generally upregulated in early C5s, compared to late C5s and adults. We discovered that one of two enzymes in the carnitine shuttle is absent from the calanoid copepod lineage. Based on the geographical location of the sampling site, the field-samples were initially presumed to consist of C. finmarchicus. However, the identification of C. glacialis in some samples underlines the need for performing molecular analyses to reliably identify Calanus species. Our findings contributes to a better understanding of molecular events occurring during diapause and diapause termination in calanoid copepods.