Lynch Daniel R.

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Daniel R.

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  • Article
    Model simulations of the Bay of Fundy Gyre : 1. Climatological results
    (American Geophysical Union, 2008-10-29) Aretxabaleta, Alfredo L. ; McGillicuddy, Dennis J. ; Smith, Keston W. ; Lynch, Daniel R.
    The characteristics of a persistent gyre in the mouth of the Bay of Fundy are studied using model simulations. A set of climatological runs are conducted to evaluate the relative importance of the different forcing mechanisms affecting the gyre. The main mechanisms are tidal rectification and density-driven circulation. Stronger circulation of the gyre occurs during the later part of the stratified season (July–August and September–October). The density-driven flow around the gyre is set up by weak tidal mixing in the deep basin in the central Bay of Fundy and strong tidal mixing on the shallow flanks around Grand Manan Island and western Nova Scotia. Spring river discharge has an important influence on near-surface circulation but only a small effect when averaged over the entire water column. Retention of particles in the gyre is controlled by the residual tidal circulation, increased frontal retention during stratified periods, wind stress, and interactions with the adjacent circulation of the Gulf of Maine. Residence times longer than 30 days are predicted for particles released in the proximity of the gyre.
  • Article
    Model simulations of the Bay of Fundy Gyre : 2. Hindcasts for 2005–2007 reveal interannual variability in retentiveness
    (American Geophysical Union, 2009-09-03) Aretxabaleta, Alfredo L. ; McGillicuddy, Dennis J. ; Smith, Keston W. ; Manning, James P. ; Lynch, Daniel R.
    A persistent gyre at the mouth of the Bay of Fundy results from a combination of tidal rectification and buoyancy forcing. Here we assess recent interannual variability in the strength of the gyre using data assimilative model simulations. Realistic hindcast representations of the gyre are considered during cruises in 2005, 2006, and 2007. Assimilation of shipboard and moored acoustic Doppler current profiler velocities is used to improve the skill of the simulations, as quantified by comparison with nonassimilated drifter trajectories. Our hindcasts suggest a weakening of the gyre system during May 2005. Retention of simulated passive particles in the gyre during that period was highly reduced. A recovery of the dense water pool in the deep part of the basin by June 2006 resulted in a return to particle retention characteristics similar to climatology. Retention estimates reached a maximum during May 2007 (subsurface) and June–July 2007 (near surface). Interannual variability in the strength of the gyre was primarily modulated by the stratification of the dense water pool inside the Grand Manan Basin. These changes in stratification were associated with mixing conditions the preceding fall–winter and/or advectively driven modification of water mass properties.
  • Article
    Data assimilative hindcast of the Gulf of Maine coastal circulation
    (American Geophysical Union, 2005-10-12) He, Ruoying ; McGillicuddy, Dennis J. ; Lynch, Daniel R. ; Smith, Keston W. ; Stock, Charles A. ; Manning, James P.
    A data assimilative model hindcast of the Gulf of Maine (GOM) coastal circulation during an 11 day field survey in early summer 2003 is presented. In situ observations include surface winds, coastal sea levels, and shelf hydrography as well as moored and shipboard acoustic Doppler D current profiler (ADCP) currents. The hindcast system consists of both forward and inverse models. The forward model is a three-dimensional, nonlinear finite element ocean circulation model, and the inverse models are its linearized frequency domain and time domain counterparts. The model hindcast assimilates both coastal sea levels and ADCP current measurements via the inversion for the unknown sea level open boundary conditions. Model skill is evaluated by the divergence of the observed and modeled drifter trajectories. A mean drifter divergence rate (1.78 km d−1) is found, demonstrating the utility of the inverse data assimilation modeling system in the coastal ocean setting. Model hindcast also reveals complicated hydrodynamic structures and synoptic variability in the GOM coastal circulation and their influences on coastal water material property transport. The complex bottom bathymetric setting offshore of Penobscot and Casco bays is shown to be able to generate local upwelling and downwelling that may be important in local plankton dynamics.