Bohnenstiehl DelWayne R.

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Bohnenstiehl
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DelWayne R.
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  • Preprint
    Faulting and hydration of the Juan de Fuca plate system
    ( 2009-04-03) Nedimovic, Mladen R. ; Bohnenstiehl, DelWayne R. ; Carbotte, Suzanne M. ; Canales, J. Pablo ; Dziak, Robert P.
    Multichannel seismic observations provide the first direct images of crustal scale normal faults within the Juan de Fuca plate system and indicate that brittle deformation extends up to ~200 km seaward of the Cascadia trench. Within the sedimentary layering steeply dipping faults are identified by stratigraphic offsets, with maximum throws of 110±10 m found near the trench. Fault throws diminish both upsection and seaward from the trench. Long-term throw rates are estimated to be 13±2 mm/kyr. Faulted offsets within the sedimentary layering are typically linked to larger offset scarps in the basement topography, suggesting reactivation of the normal fault systems formed at the spreading center. Imaged reflections within the gabbroic igneous crust indicate swallowing fault dips at depth. These reflections require local alteration to produce an impedance contrast, indicating that the imaged fault structures provide pathways for fluid transport and hydration. As the depth extent of imaged faulting within this young and sediment insulated oceanic plate is primarily limited to approximately Moho depths, fault- controlled hydration appears to be largely restricted to crustal levels. If dehydration embrittlement is an important mechanism for triggering intermediate-depth earthquakes within the subducting slab, then the limited occurrence rate and magnitude of intraslab seismicity at the Cascadia margin may in part be explained by the limited amount of water imbedded into the uppermost oceanic mantle prior to subduction. The distribution of submarine earthquakes within the Juan de Fuca plate system indicates that propagator wake areas are likely to be more faulted and therefore more hydrated than other parts of his plate system. However, being largely restricted to crustal levels, this localized increase in hydration generally does not appear to have a measurable effect on the intraslab seismicity along most of the subducted propagator wakes at the Cascadia margin.
  • Article
    Flux measurements of explosive degassing using a yearlong hydroacoustic record at an erupting submarine volcano
    (American Geophysical Union, 2012-11-29) Dziak, Robert P. ; Baker, Edward T. ; Shaw, Alison M. ; Bohnenstiehl, DelWayne R. ; Chadwick, William W. ; Haxel, Joseph H. ; Matsumoto, Haru ; Walker, Sharon L.
    The output of gas and tephra from volcanoes is an inherently disorganized process that makes reliable flux estimates challenging to obtain. Continuous monitoring of gas flux has been achieved in only a few instances at subaerial volcanoes, but never for submarine volcanoes. Here we use the first sustained (yearlong) hydroacoustic monitoring of an erupting submarine volcano (NW Rota-1, Mariana arc) to make calculations of explosive gas flux from a volcano into the ocean. Bursts of Strombolian explosive degassing at the volcano summit (520 m deep) occurred at 1–2 min intervals during the entire 12-month hydrophone record and commonly exhibited cyclic step-function changes between high and low intensity. Total gas flux calculated from the hydroacoustic record is 5.4 ± 0.6 Tg a−1, where the magmatic gases driving eruptions at NW Rota-1 are primarily H2O, SO2, and CO2. Instantaneous fluxes varied by a factor of ∼100 over the deployment. Using melt inclusion information to estimate the concentration of CO2 in the explosive gases as 6.9 ± 0.7 wt %, we calculate an annual CO2 eruption flux of 0.4 ± 0.1 Tg a−1. This result is within the range of measured CO2 fluxes at continuously erupting subaerial volcanoes, and represents ∼0.2–0.6% of the annual estimated output of CO2from all subaerial arc volcanoes, and ∼0.4–0.6% of the mid-ocean ridge flux. The multiyear eruptive history of NW Rota-1 demonstrates that submarine volcanoes can be significant and sustained sources of CO2 to the shallow ocean.
  • Article
    Hydroacoustic monitoring of oceanic spreading centers : past, present, and future
    (The Oceanography Society, 2012-03) Dziak, Robert P. ; Bohnenstiehl, DelWayne R. ; Smith, Deborah K.
    Mid-ocean ridge volcanism and extensional faulting are the fundamental processes that lead to the creation and rifting of oceanic crust, yet these events go largely undetected in the deep ocean. Currently, the only means available to observe seafloor-spreading events in real time is via the remote detection of the seismicity generated during faulting or intrusion of magma into brittle oceanic crust. Hydrophones moored in the ocean provide an effective means for detecting these small-magnitude earthquakes, and the use of this technology during the last two decades has facilitated the real-time detection of mid-ocean ridge seafloor eruptions and confirmation of subseafloor microbial ecosystems. As technology evolves and mid-ocean ridge studies move into a new era, we anticipate an expanding network of seismo-acoustic sensors integrated into seafloor fiber-optic cabled observatories, satellite-telemetered surface buoys, and autonomous vehicle platforms.
  • Article
    Evidence of a recent magma dike intrusion at the slow spreading Lucky Strike segment, Mid-Atlantic Ridge
    (American Geophysical Union, 2004-12-04) Dziak, Robert P. ; Smith, Deborah K. ; Bohnenstiehl, DelWayne R. ; Fox, Christopher G. ; Desbruyeres, Daniel ; Matsumoto, Haru ; Tolstoy, Maya ; Fornari, Daniel J.
    Mid-ocean ridge volcanic activity is the fundamental process for creation of ocean crust, yet the dynamics of magma emplacement along the slow spreading Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) are largely unknown. We present acoustical, seismological, and biological evidence of a magmatic dike intrusion at the Lucky Strike segment, the first detected from the deeper sections (>1500 m) of the MAR. The dike caused the largest teleseismic earthquake swarm recorded at Lucky Strike in >20 years of seismic monitoring, and one of the largest ever recorded on the northern MAR. Hydrophone records indicate that the rate of earthquake activity decays in a nontectonic manner and that the onset of the swarm was accompanied by 30 min of broadband (>3 Hz) intrusion tremor, suggesting a volcanic origin. Two submersible investigations of high-temperature vents located at the summit of Lucky Strike Seamount 3 months and 1 year after the swarm showed a significant increase in microbial activity and diffuse venting. This magmatic episode may represent one form of volcanism along the MAR, where highly focused pockets of magma are intruded sporadically into the shallow ocean crust beneath long-lived, discrete volcanic structures recharging preexisting seafloor hydrothermal vents and ecosystems.
  • Article
    Variation in habitat soundscape characteristics influences settlement of a reef-building coral
    (PeerJ, 2016-10-13) Lillis, Ashlee ; Bohnenstiehl, DelWayne R. ; Peters, Jason W. ; Eggleston, David B.
    Coral populations, and the productive reef ecosystems they support, rely on successful recruitment of reef-building species, beginning with settlement of dispersing larvae into habitat favourable to survival. Many substrate cues have been identified as contributors to coral larval habitat selection; however, the potential for ambient acoustic cues to influence coral settlement responses is unknown. Using in situ settlement chambers that excluded other habitat cues, larval settlement of a dominant Caribbean reef-building coral, Orbicella faveolata, was compared in response to three local soundscapes, with differing acoustic and habitat properties. Differences between reef sites in the number of larvae settled in chambers isolating acoustic cues corresponded to differences in sound levels and reef characteristics, with sounds at the loudest reef generating significantly higher settlement during trials compared to the quietest site (a 29.5 % increase). These results suggest that soundscapes could be an important influence on coral settlement patterns and that acoustic cues associated with reef habitat may be related to larval settlement. This study reports an effect of soundscape variation on larval settlement for a key coral species, and adds to the growing evidence that soundscapes affect marine ecosystems by influencing early life history processes of foundational species.
  • Article
    Soundscape manipulation enhances larval recruitment of a reef-building mollusk
    (PeerJ, 2015-06-04) Lillis, Ashlee ; Bohnenstiehl, DelWayne R. ; Eggleston, David B.
    Marine seafloor ecosystems, and efforts to restore them, depend critically on the influx and settlement of larvae following their pelagic dispersal period. Larval dispersal and settlement patterns are driven by a combination of physical oceanography and behavioral responses of larvae to a suite of sensory cues both in the water column and at settlement sites. There is growing evidence that the biological and physical sounds associated with adult habitats (i.e., the “soundscape”) influence larval settlement and habitat selection; however, the significance of acoustic cues is rarely tested. Here we show in a field experiment that the free-swimming larvae of an estuarine invertebrate, the eastern oyster, respond to the addition of replayed habitat-related sounds. Oyster larval recruitment was significantly higher on larval collectors exposed to oyster reef sounds compared to no-sound controls. These results provide the first field evidence that soundscape cues may attract the larval settlers of a reef-building estuarine invertebrate.