Hogg Nelson G.

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Nelson G.

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  • Article
    Eddy–mean flow interaction in the Kuroshio Extension region
    (American Meteorological Society, 2011-06) Waterman, Stephanie N. ; Hogg, Nelson G. ; Jayne, Steven R.
    The authors use data collected by a line of tall current meter moorings deployed across the axis of the Kuroshio Extension (KE) jet at the location of maximum time-mean eddy kinetic energy to characterize the mean jet structure, the eddy variability, and the nature of eddy–mean flow interactions observed during the Kuroshio Extension System Study (KESS). A picture of the 2-yr record mean jet structure is presented in both geographical and stream coordinates, revealing important contrasts in jet strength, width, vertical structure, and flanking recirculation structure. Eddy variability observed is discussed in the context of some of its various sources: jet meandering, rings, waves, and jet instability. Finally, various scenarios for eddy–mean flow interaction consistent with the observations are explored. It is shown that the observed cross-jet distributions of Reynolds stresses at the KESS location are consistent with wave radiation away from the jet, with the sense of the eddy feedback effect on the mean consistent with eddy driving of the observed recirculations. The authors consider these results in the context of a broader description of eddy–mean flow interactions in the larger KE region using KESS data in combination with in situ measurements from past programs in the region and satellite altimetry. This demonstrates important consistencies in the along-stream development of time-mean and eddy properties in the KE with features of an idealized model of a western boundary current (WBC) jet used to understand the nature and importance of eddy–mean flow interactions in WBC jet systems.
  • Technical Report
    Space and time scales of mesoscale motion in the western North Atlantic
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2018-08) Richman, James G. ; Wunsch, Carl ; Hogg, Nelson G.
    From moored data, primarily temperature, of the Mid-Ocean Dynamics Experiment (ModeI) and its successor experiments we find a statistical description of the mesoscale variability. In the ModeI area itself the spectral characteristics of the thermocline and the deep water are different. The thermocline is conveniently described as being made up of three spectral bands: a ' low-frequency' band dominated by zonal velocity fluctuations, an 'eddy-containing' band in which the velocity field is nearly isotropic, and a 'high-frequency' band consistent with models of geostrophic turbulence. In the deep water the zonal dominance at low frequencies is not apparent, and there is enhanced energy at periods of 20-50 days. Vertical structure scales with WK BJ approximation in the high-frequency band but not in the lower frequencies, where low vertical modes dominate the motion. Linear models do not adequately describe the data in the ModeI region. Differences between rough and smooth topography regions are clearly seen only at 1500 m, where there is a loss of energy consistent with a reduced barotropic motion. Other differences, while apparently real, are small. It is found, consistent with the results of Schmitz (1976a), that the ModeI region is atypical of the midocean in that large changes of energy level are found elsewhere. A region due east of ModeI has slightly reduced kinetic energy levels in the main thermocline, but deep energy levels are much lower. Potential energy is less variable than kinetic; in the eastern region the frequency spectra change structure slightly. Linear models may be more adequate there. With more than 2 years of data, no statistically significant heat flux was found in the ModeI area, except for a weak zonal flux in the deep water. There is no direct evidence for baroclinic instability as a significant mechanism of eddy generation; the Gulf Stream is a possible, if unconfirmed, source.