Fratantoni David M.

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David M.

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  • Technical Report
    CLIVAR Mode Water Dynamics Experiment (CLIMODE) fall 2005, R/V Oceanus voyage 419, November 9, 2005–November 27, 2005
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2006-02) Hutto, Lara ; Weller, Robert A. ; Fratantoni, David M. ; Lord, Jeffrey ; Kemp, John N. ; Lund, John M. ; Brambilla, Elena ; Bigorre, Sebastien P.
    CLIMODE (CLIVAR Mode Water Dynamic Experiment) is a program designed to understand and quantify the processes responsible for the formation and dissipation of North Atlantic subtropical mode water, also called Eighteen Degree Water (EDW). Among these processes, the amount of buoyancy loss at the ocean-atmosphere interface is still uncertain and needs to be accurately quantified. In November 2005, a cruise was made aboard R/V Oceanus in the region of the separated Gulf Stream, where intense oceanic heat loss to the atmosphere is believed to trigger the formation of EDW. During that cruise, one surface mooring with IMET meteorological instruments was anchored in the core of the Gulf Stream as well as two moored profilers on its southeastern edge. Surface drifters, APEX floats and bobby RAFOS floats were also deployed along with two other moorings with sound sources. CTD profiles and water samples were also carried out. This array of instruments will permit a characterization of EDW with high spatial and temporal resolutions, and accurate in-situ measurements of air-sea fluxes in the formation region. The present report documents this cruise, the instruments that were deployed and the array of measurements that was set in place.
  • Technical Report
    EcoMapper operations---KN209-1
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2012-12) Hodges, Benjamin A. ; Fratantoni, David M.
    This report describes the collection of water property data from EcoMapper AUVs during the R/V Knorr 209-1 cruise as part of the SPURS (Salinity Processes Upper-ocean Regional Study) project. Post-processing was required to improve the quality of the raw data, particularly salinity, and is documented herein. Initial results from temperature and salinity records are presented. The measurements are concentrated in the upper 10 meters of the mixed layer during calm conditions, and reveal significant diurnal warming (up to 3°C) and salinification (up to 0.1 psu) of the surface (< 1 meter) layer. The mixing promoted by the motion of the research vessel destroys this shallow stratification, so the ability of the AUVs to sample undisturbed water hundreds of meters from the ship was critical to the effort of accurately resolving it.
  • Technical Report
    North Brazil Current Rings Experiment : RAFOS float data report : November 1998 – June 2000
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2002-07) Wooding, Christine M. ; Richardson, Philip L. ; Pacheco, Marguerite A. ; Glickson, Deborah A. ; Fratantoni, David M.
    Twenty-one RAFOS floats were tracked at depths of 200-1000 meters in and around several North Brazil Current Rings between November 1998 and June 2000. This was part of an experiment to study the role of these current rings in transporting upper level South Atlantic water across the equatorial-tropical gyre boundary into the North Atlantic subtropical gyre. The float trajectories in combination with surface drifters and satellite imagery reveal the sometimes complex life histories of several rings and their fate as they collide with the Lesser Antilles Islands. This report describes the float trajectories, the velocity, temperature, and depth time series, and a preliminary analysis of the float data.
  • Technical Report
    North Brazil Current Rings Experiment : mooring S1 data report, November 1998 - June 2000
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2001-06) Glickson, Deborah A. ; Fratantoni, David M.
    Nineteen months of temperature and salinity data were recovered from North Brazil Current (NBC) Rings Experiment Mooring S1. The mooring, located east of Barbados at 13º 00’N, 57º 53’W between November 1998 and June 2000, consisted of a vertical array of five temperature/conductivity recorders, five temperature recorders, one 150 kHz acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP), and one 260 Hz RAFOS sound source. This instrumentation was distributed over a depth interval (500-1100m) coincident with the low-salinity core of Antarctic Intermediate Water. Due to low concentration of scattering particles at 1000 m, the ADCP failed to return useful velocity data. Heading, pitch, and roll data were successfully recorded, however, and provide coarse measurement of current intensity. Four anomalously low temperature, low salinity, and (inferred) high-velocity events appear toward the end of the record. The temperature and salinity fluctuations observed during these events are most likely due to a combination of vertical instrument excursions due to current-induced mooring tilt and advection of anomalous NBC ring-core water past the mooring site. Anomalous conditions persist for a period of 2-3 weeks and appear, based on simultaneous surface drifter trajectories and satellite ocean color observations, to be associated with the passage of NBC Rings near Barbados.
  • Technical Report
    Red Sea Outflow Experiment (REDSOX) : DLD2 RAFOS float data report February 2001 - March 2003
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2005-01) Furey, Heather H. ; Bower, Amy S. ; Fratantoni, David M.
    This is the final data report of all acoustically tracked second-generation Deep Lagrangian Drifter (DLD2) RAFOS float data collected by the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in 2001-2003 during the Red Sea Outflow Experiment (REDSOX). The float component of REDSOX was comprised of two deployments on the R/V Knorr and R/V Ewing: the first in February-March 2001, with 26 floats, and the second in August-September 2001, with 27 floats. The isobaric floats were ballasted for 650 decibars to target the intermediate-depth, high-salinity outflow waters from the Red Sea. The objectives of the Lagrangian float study were (1) to identify the spreading pathways of the equilibrated Red Sea outflow, and to quantify the velocities and eddy variability typical of this outflow and of the background oceanic environment in the Gulf of Aden, and (2) to identify and describe the mesoscale processes which contribute to the seaward transport of Red Sea Overflow Water properties through the Gulf of Aden and into the western Indian Ocean. In addition to floats activated and launched during the two cruises, four time-series sites were chosen for dual-release float moorings. The dual-release floats were released every two months between cruises and every two months after the second cruise, with the final release in March 2002. A pirate attack on the R/V Ewing forced some modification of the float deployment plan during the second cruise.
  • Technical Report
    OC449-09 Data Report : St. Thomas, USVI to Bermuda, December 1-10, 2008
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2009-10) Kirincich, Anthony R. ; Hodges, Benjamin A. ; Fratantoni, David M. ; Bahr, Frank B.
    Data collected during multiple surveys of hydrography, velocity, and biological quantities are presented from a 9-day cruise aboard the R/V Oceanus near the island of St. Thomas, USVI and a subsequent transit to Bermuda during December, 2008. This cruise (OC449-09) was undertaken primarily to field test a newly acquired towed-undulating body, the Scanfish. The Scanfish and a second towed body, the Video Plankton Recorder (VPR), were used to survey hydrographic, optical, and biological properties north and south of St. Thomas. Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts and plankton net-tows were made at locations along the survey transects for inter-comparison. The VPR was also used to profile conditions between St. Thomas and Bermuda during transit. An overview of the cruise is given along with descriptions of the data collection methods, processing steps taken, and data products available for distribution.
  • Technical Report
    CLIMODE bobber data report : July 2005 - May 2009
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2010-03) Fratantoni, David M. ; McKee, Theresa K. ; Hodges, Benjamin A. ; Furey, Heather H. ; Lund, John M.
    This report summarizes direct observations of Eighteen Degree Water (EDW) subduction and dispersal within the subtropical gyre of the North Atlantic Ocean. Forty acoustically-tracked bobbing, profiling floats (“bobbers”) were deployed to study the formation and dispersal of EDW in the western North Atlantic. The unique bobber dataset described herein provides insight into the evolution of EDW by means of direct, eddy-resolving measurement of EDW Lagrangian dispersal pathways and stratification. Bobbers are modified Autonomous Profiling Explorer (APEX) profiling floats which actively servo their buoyancy control mechanism to follow a particular isothermal surface. The CLIVAR Mode Water Dynamics Experiment (CLIMODE) bobbers tracked the 18.5°C temperature surface for 3 days, then bobbed quickly between the 17°C and 19°C isotherms. This cycle was repeated for one month, after which each bobber profiled to 1000 m before ascending to the surface to transmit data. The resulting dataset (37/40 tracked bobbers; more than half still profiling as of January 2010) yields well-resolved trajectories, unprecedented velocity statistics in the core of the subducting and spreading EDW, and detailed information about the Lagrangian evolution of EDW thickness and vertical structure. This report provides an overview of the experimental procedure employed and summarizes the initial processing of the bobber dataset.
  • Technical Report
    CLIMODE Subsurface Mooring Report : November 2005 - November 2007
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2013-03) Lund, John M. ; Davis, Xujing Jia ; Ramsey, Andree L. ; Straneo, Fiamma ; Torres, Daniel J. ; Palter, Jaime B. ; Gary, Stefan F. ; Fratantoni, David M.
    Two years of temperature, salinity, current, and nutrient data were collected on four subsurface moorings as part of the 2 year field component of the CLIMODE experiment. The moorings were located in North Atlantic’s subtropical gyre, south-east of the Gulf Stream. Two moorings, the most heavily instrumented, were close to the Gulf Stream, in the region where cold air outbreaks force large air-sea fluxes and where Eighteen Degree Water outcrops. Two other moorings were located farther south and carried more limited instrumentation. The moorings were initially deployed in November of 2005, turned around in November of 2006 and finally recovered in November of 2007. During the first year, the moorings close to the Gulf Stream suffered considerable blow down, and some of the instruments failed. During the second year, the blow down was greatly reduced and most instruments collected a full year worth of data.
  • Technical Report
    North Brazil Current Rings Experiment : surface drifter data report, November 1998-June 2000
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2000-07) Glickson, Deborah A. ; Fratantoni, David M. ; Wooding, Christine M. ; Richardson, Philip L.
    This data report summarzes 45 surface drifter trajectories collected between November 1998 and June 2000 as part of the North Brazil Current (NBC) Rings Experiment. NBC rings have been proposed as one of several important mechanisms for the transport of South Atlantic upper-ocean water across the equatorial-tropical gyre boundary and into the North Atlantic subtropical gyre. Such transport is required to complete the meridional overturning cell in the Atlantic forced by the high-latitude production and southward export of North Atlantic Deep Water. The goal of this program is to obtain, for the first time, comprehensive observations of the NBC retroflection, the NBC ring formation process, and the physical structure and properties of NBC rings as they translate northwestward along the low-latitude western boundary. A total of 45 drifters were deployed. Twenty-four of these looped anticyclonically within the five rings identified during this experiment. Seven of the looping ring drifters entered the Caribbean, while the rest moved northward along the eastern flank of the Lesser Antiles.