Fratantoni David M.

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David M.

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Now showing 1 - 9 of 9
  • Article
    Real-time reporting of baleen whale passive acoustic detections from ocean gliders
    (Acoustical Society of America, 2013-08) Baumgartner, Mark F. ; Fratantoni, David M. ; Hurst, Thomas P. ; Brown, Moira W. ; Cole, Timothy V. N. ; Van Parijs, Sofie M. ; Johnson, Mark P.
    In the past decade, much progress has been made in real-time passive acoustic monitoring of marine mammal occurrence and distribution from autonomous platforms (e.g., gliders, floats, buoys), but current systems focus primarily on a single call type produced by a single species, often from a single location. A hardware and software system was developed to detect, classify, and report 14 call types produced by 4 species of baleen whales in real time from ocean gliders. During a 3-week deployment in the central Gulf of Maine in late November and early December 2012, two gliders reported over 25 000 acoustic detections attributed to fin, humpback, sei, and right whales. The overall false detection rate for individual calls was 14%, and for right, humpback, and fin whales, false predictions of occurrence during 15-min reporting periods were 5% or less. Transmitted pitch tracks—compact representations of sounds—allowed unambiguous identification of both humpback and fin whale song. Of the ten cases when whales were sighted during aerial or shipboard surveys and a glider was within 20 km of the sighting location, nine were accompanied by real-time acoustic detections of the same species by the glider within ±12 h of the sighting time.
  • Technical Report
    EcoMapper operations---KN209-1
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2012-12) Hodges, Benjamin A. ; Fratantoni, David M.
    This report describes the collection of water property data from EcoMapper AUVs during the R/V Knorr 209-1 cruise as part of the SPURS (Salinity Processes Upper-ocean Regional Study) project. Post-processing was required to improve the quality of the raw data, particularly salinity, and is documented herein. Initial results from temperature and salinity records are presented. The measurements are concentrated in the upper 10 meters of the mixed layer during calm conditions, and reveal significant diurnal warming (up to 3°C) and salinification (up to 0.1 psu) of the surface (< 1 meter) layer. The mixing promoted by the motion of the research vessel destroys this shallow stratification, so the ability of the AUVs to sample undisturbed water hundreds of meters from the ship was critical to the effort of accurately resolving it.
  • Article
    AXIS—an Autonomous Expendable Instrument System
    (American Meteorological Society, 2017-12-28) Fratantoni, David M. ; O’Brien, Jeff ; Flagg, Charles Noel ; Rossby, H. Thomas
    Expendable bathythermographs (XBT) to profile upper-ocean temperatures from vessels in motion have been in use for some 50 years now. Developed originally for navy use, they were soon adapted by oceanographers to map out upper-ocean thermal structure and its space–-time variability from both research vessels and merchant marine vessels in regular traffic. These activities continue today. This paper describes a new technology—the Autonomous Expendable Instrument System (AXIS)—that has been developed to provide the capability to deploy XBT probes on a predefined schedule, or adaptively in response to specific events without the presence of an observer on board. AXIS is a completely self-contained system that can hold up to 12 expendable probes [XBTs, XCTDs, expendable sound velocimeter (XSV)] in any combination. A single-board Linux computer keeps track of what probes are available, takes commands from ashore via Iridium satellite on what deployment schedule to follow, and records and forwards the probe data immediately with a time stamp and the GPS position. This paper provides a brief overview of its operation, capabilities, and some examples of how it is improving coverage along two lines in the Atlantic.
  • Article
    AUV observations of the diurnal surface layer in the North Atlantic salinity maximum
    (American Meteorological Society, 2014-06) Hodges, Benjamin A. ; Fratantoni, David M.
    Autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) surveys of temperature, salinity, and velocity in the upper 10 m of the ocean were carried out in low-wind conditions near the North Atlantic surface salinity maximum as part of the Salinity Processes in the Upper Ocean Regional Study (SPURS) project. Starting from a well-mixed state, the development, deepening, and decay of a warm salty diurnal surface layer was observed at <1-h resolution. The evaporation rate deduced from the freshwater anomaly of the layer corroborates measurements at a nearby flux mooring. Profiles within a few hundred meters of the stationary research vessel showed evidence of mixing, highlighting the effectiveness of AUVs for collecting uncontaminated time series of near-surface thermohaline structure. A two-dimensional horizontal subsurface survey within the diurnal warm layer revealed coherent warm and cool bands, which are interpreted as internal waves on the diurnal thermocline.
  • Article
    Salinity and temperature balances at the SPURS central mooring during fall and winter
    (The Oceanography Society, 2015-03) Farrar, J. Thomas ; Rainville, Luc ; Plueddemann, Albert J. ; Kessler, William S. ; Lee, Craig M. ; Hodges, Benjamin A. ; Schmitt, Raymond W. ; Edson, James B. ; Riser, Stephen C. ; Eriksen, Charles C. ; Fratantoni, David M.
    One part of the Salinity Processes in the Upper-ocean Regional Study (SPURS) field campaign focused on understanding the physical processes affecting the evolution of upper-ocean salinity in the region of climatological maximum sea surface salinity in the subtropical North Atlantic (SPURS-1). An upper-ocean salinity budget provides a useful framework for increasing this understanding. The SPURS-1 program included a central heavily instrumented mooring for making accurate measurements of air-sea surface fluxes, as well as other moorings, Argo floats, and gliders that together formed a dense observational array. Data from this array are used to estimate terms in the upper-ocean salinity and heat budgets during the SPURS-1 campaign, with a focus on the first several months (October 2012 to February 2013) when the surface mixed layer was becoming deeper, fresher, and cooler. Specifically, we examine the salinity and temperature balances for an upper-ocean mixed layer, defined as the layer where the density is within 0.4 kg m–3 of its surface value. The gross features of the evolution of upper-ocean salinity and temperature during this fall/winter season are explained by a combination of evaporation and precipitation at the sea surface, horizontal transport of heat and salt by mixed-layer currents, and vertical entrainment of fresher, cooler fluid into the layer as it deepened. While all of these processes were important in the observed seasonal (fall) freshening at this location in the salinity-maximum region, the variability of salinity on monthly-to-intraseasonal time scales resulted primarily from horizontal advection.
  • Technical Report
    CLIMODE bobber data report : July 2005 - May 2009
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2010-03) Fratantoni, David M. ; McKee, Theresa K. ; Hodges, Benjamin A. ; Furey, Heather H. ; Lund, John M.
    This report summarizes direct observations of Eighteen Degree Water (EDW) subduction and dispersal within the subtropical gyre of the North Atlantic Ocean. Forty acoustically-tracked bobbing, profiling floats (“bobbers”) were deployed to study the formation and dispersal of EDW in the western North Atlantic. The unique bobber dataset described herein provides insight into the evolution of EDW by means of direct, eddy-resolving measurement of EDW Lagrangian dispersal pathways and stratification. Bobbers are modified Autonomous Profiling Explorer (APEX) profiling floats which actively servo their buoyancy control mechanism to follow a particular isothermal surface. The CLIVAR Mode Water Dynamics Experiment (CLIMODE) bobbers tracked the 18.5°C temperature surface for 3 days, then bobbed quickly between the 17°C and 19°C isotherms. This cycle was repeated for one month, after which each bobber profiled to 1000 m before ascending to the surface to transmit data. The resulting dataset (37/40 tracked bobbers; more than half still profiling as of January 2010) yields well-resolved trajectories, unprecedented velocity statistics in the core of the subducting and spreading EDW, and detailed information about the Lagrangian evolution of EDW thickness and vertical structure. This report provides an overview of the experimental procedure employed and summarizes the initial processing of the bobber dataset.
  • Technical Report
    CLIMODE Subsurface Mooring Report : November 2005 - November 2007
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2013-03) Lund, John M. ; Davis, Xujing Jia ; Ramsey, Andree L. ; Straneo, Fiamma ; Torres, Daniel J. ; Palter, Jaime B. ; Gary, Stefan F. ; Fratantoni, David M.
    Two years of temperature, salinity, current, and nutrient data were collected on four subsurface moorings as part of the 2 year field component of the CLIMODE experiment. The moorings were located in North Atlantic’s subtropical gyre, south-east of the Gulf Stream. Two moorings, the most heavily instrumented, were close to the Gulf Stream, in the region where cold air outbreaks force large air-sea fluxes and where Eighteen Degree Water outcrops. Two other moorings were located farther south and carried more limited instrumentation. The moorings were initially deployed in November of 2005, turned around in November of 2006 and finally recovered in November of 2007. During the first year, the moorings close to the Gulf Stream suffered considerable blow down, and some of the instruments failed. During the second year, the blow down was greatly reduced and most instruments collected a full year worth of data.
  • Article
    Satellites to seafloor : toward fully autonomous ocean sampling
    (Oceanography Society, 2017-06) Thompson, Andrew F. ; Chao, Yi ; Chien, Steve ; Kinsey, James C. ; Flexas, M. Mar ; Erickson, Zachary K. ; Farrara, John ; Fratantoni, David M. ; Branch, Andrew ; Chu, Selina ; Troesch, Martina ; Claus, Brian ; Kepper, James
    Future ocean observing systems will rely heavily on autonomous vehicles to achieve the persistent and heterogeneous measurements needed to understand the ocean’s impact on the climate system. The day-to-day maintenance of these arrays will become increasingly challenging if significant human resources, such as manual piloting, are required. For this reason, techniques need to be developed that permit autonomous determination of sampling directives based on science goals and responses to in situ, remote-sensing, and model-derived information. Techniques that can accommodate large arrays of assets and permit sustained observations of rapidly evolving ocean properties are especially needed for capturing interactions between physical circulation and biogeochemical cycling. Here we document the first field program of the Satellites to Seafloor project, designed to enable a closed loop of numerical model prediction, vehicle path-planning, in situ path implementation, data collection, and data assimilation for future model predictions. We present results from the first of two field programs carried out in Monterey Bay, California, over a period of three months in 2016. While relatively modest in scope, this approach provides a step toward an observing array that makes use of multiple information streams to update and improve sampling strategies without human intervention.
  • Article
    Autonomous multi-platform observations during the Salinity Processes in the Upper-ocean Regional Study
    (Oceanography Society, 2017-06) Lindstrom, Eric ; Shcherbina, Andrey Y. ; Rainville, Luc ; Farrar, J. Thomas ; Centurioni, Luca R. ; Dong, Shenfu ; D'Asaro, Eric A. ; Eriksen, Charles C. ; Fratantoni, David M. ; Hodges, Benjamin A. ; Hormann, Verena ; Kessler, William S. ; Lee, Craig M. ; Riser, Stephen C. ; St. Laurent, Louis C. ; Volkov, Denis L.
    The Salinity Processes in the Upper-ocean Regional Study (SPURS) aims to understand the patterns and variability of sea surface salinity. In order to capture the wide range of spatial and temporal scales associated with processes controlling salinity in the upper ocean, research vessels delivered autonomous instruments to remote sites, one in the North Atlantic and one in the Eastern Pacific. Instruments sampled for one complete annual cycle at each of these two sites, which are subject to contrasting atmospheric forcing. The SPURS field programs coordinated sampling from many different platforms, using a mix of Lagrangian and Eulerian approaches. This article discusses the motivations, implementation, and first results of the SPURS-1 and SPURS-2 programs.