Mordy Calvin W.

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Calvin W.

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  • Article
    Monitoring Alaskan Arctic shelf ecosystems through collaborative observation networks
    (Oceanography Society, 2022-04-28) Danielson, Seth L. ; Grebmeier, Jacqueline M. ; Iken, Katrin ; Berchok, Catherine L. ; Britt, Lyle ; Dunton, Kenneth ; Eisner, Lisa B. ; Farley, Edward V. ; Fujiwara, Amane ; Hauser, Donna D.W. ; Itoh, Motoyo ; Kikuchi, Takashi ; Kotwicki, Stan ; Kuletz, Kathy J. ; Mordy, Calvin W. ; Nishino, Shigeto ; Peralta-Ferriz, Cecilia ; Pickart, Robert S. ; Stabeno, Phyllis J. ; Stafford, Kathleen M. ; Whiting, Alex V. ; Woodgate, Rebecca
    Ongoing scientific programs that monitor marine environmental and ecological systems and changes comprise an informal but collaborative, information-rich, and spatially extensive network for the Alaskan Arctic continental shelves. Such programs reflect contributions and priorities of regional, national, and international funding agencies, as well as private donors and communities. These science programs are operated by a variety of local, regional, state, and national agencies, and academic, Tribal, for-profit, and nongovernmental nonprofit entities. Efforts include research ship and autonomous vehicle surveys, year-long mooring deployments, and observations from coastal communities. Inter-program coordination allows cost-effective leveraging of field logistics and collected data into value-added information that fosters new insights unattainable by any single program operating alone. Coordination occurs at many levels, from discussions at marine mammal co-management meetings and interagency meetings to scientific symposia and data workshops. Together, the efforts represented by this collection of loosely linked long-term monitoring programs enable a biologically focused scientific foundation for understanding ecosystem responses to warming water temperatures and declining Arctic sea ice. Here, we introduce a variety of currently active monitoring efforts in the Alaskan Arctic marine realm that exemplify the above attributes.
  • Article
    Polar ocean observations: A critical gap in the observing system and its effect on environmental predictions from hours to a season
    (Frontiers Media, 2019-08-06) Smith, Gregory C. ; Allard, Richard ; Babin, Marcel ; Bertino, Laurent ; Chevallier, Matthieu ; Corlett, Gary ; Crout, Julia ; Davidson, Fraser J. M. ; Delille, Bruno ; Gille, Sarah T. ; Hebert, David ; Hyder, Patrick ; Intrieri, Janet ; Lagunas, José ; Larnicol, Gilles ; Kaminski, Thomas ; Kater, Belinda ; Kauker, Frank ; Marec, Claudie ; Mazloff, Matthew R. ; Metzger, E. Joseph ; Mordy, Calvin W. ; O’Carroll, Anne ; Olsen, Steffen M. ; Phelps, Michael W. ; Posey, Pamela ; Prandi, Pierre ; Rehm, Eric ; Reid, Philip C. ; Rigor, Ignatius ; Sandven, Stein ; Shupe, Matthew ; Swart, Sebastiaan ; Smedstad, Ole Martin ; Solomon, Amy ; Storto, Andrea ; Thibaut, Pierre ; Toole, John M. ; Wood, Kevin R. ; Xie, Jiping ; Yang, Qinghua ; WWRP PPP Steering Group
    There is a growing need for operational oceanographic predictions in both the Arctic and Antarctic polar regions. In the former, this is driven by a declining ice cover accompanied by an increase in maritime traffic and exploitation of marine resources. Oceanographic predictions in the Antarctic are also important, both to support Antarctic operations and also to help elucidate processes governing sea ice and ice shelf stability. However, a significant gap exists in the ocean observing system in polar regions, compared to most areas of the global ocean, hindering the reliability of ocean and sea ice forecasts. This gap can also be seen from the spread in ocean and sea ice reanalyses for polar regions which provide an estimate of their uncertainty. The reduced reliability of polar predictions may affect the quality of various applications including search and rescue, coupling with numerical weather and seasonal predictions, historical reconstructions (reanalysis), aquaculture and environmental management including environmental emergency response. Here, we outline the status of existing near-real time ocean observational efforts in polar regions, discuss gaps, and explore perspectives for the future. Specific recommendations include a renewed call for open access to data, especially real-time data, as a critical capability for improved sea ice and weather forecasting and other environmental prediction needs. Dedicated efforts are also needed to make use of additional observations made as part of the Year of Polar Prediction (YOPP; 2017–2019) to inform optimal observing system design. To provide a polar extension to the Argo network, it is recommended that a network of ice-borne sea ice and upper-ocean observing buoys be deployed and supported operationally in ice-covered areas together with autonomous profiling floats and gliders (potentially with ice detection capability) in seasonally ice covered seas. Finally, additional efforts to better measure and parameterize surface exchanges in polar regions are much needed to improve coupled environmental prediction.
  • Article
    Water mass evolution and circulation of the northeastern Chukchi Sea in summer: Implications for nutrient distributions
    (American Geophysical Union, 2019-06-07) Lin, Peigen ; Pickart, Robert S. ; McRaven, Leah T. ; Arrigo, Kevin R. ; Bahr, Frank ; Lowry, Kate E. ; Stockwell, Dean A. ; Mordy, Calvin W.
    Synoptic and historical shipboard data, spanning the period 1981–2017, are used to investigate the seasonal evolution of water masses on the northeastern Chukchi shelf and quantify the circulation patterns and their impact on nutrient distributions. We find that Alaskan coastal water extends to Barrow Canyon along the coastal pathway, with peak presence in September, while the Pacific Winter Water (WW) continually drains off the shelf through the summer. The depth‐averaged circulation under light winds is characterized by a strong Alaskan Coastal Current (ACC) and northward flow through Central Channel. A portion of the Central Channel flow recirculates anticyclonically to join the ACC, while the remainder progresses northeastward to Hanna Shoal where it bifurcates around both sides of the shoal. All of the branches converge southeast of the shoal and eventually join the ACC. The wind‐forced response has two regimes: In the coastal region the circulation depends on wind direction, while on the interior shelf the circulation is sensitive to wind stress curl. In the most common wind‐forced state—northeasterly winds and anticyclonic wind stress curl—the ACC reverses, the Central Channel flow penetrates farther north, and there is mass exchange between the interior and coastal regions. In September and October, the region southeast of Hanna Shoal is characterized by elevated amounts of WW, a shallower pycnocline, and higher concentrations of nitrate. Sustained late‐season phytoplankton growth spurred by this pooling of nutrients could result in enhanced vertical export of carbon to the seafloor, contributing to the maintenance of benthic hotspots in this region.
  • Article
    Results of the first Arctic Heat Open Science Experiment
    (American Meteorological Society, 2018-04-19) Wood, Kevin R. ; Jayne, Steven R. ; Mordy, Calvin W. ; Bond, Nicholas A. ; Overland, James E. ; Ladd, Carol ; Stabeno, Phyllis J. ; Ekholm, Alexander K. ; Robbins, Pelle E. ; Schreck, Mary-Beth ; Heim, Rebecca ; Intrieri, Janet
    Seasonally ice-covered marginal seas are among the most difficult regions in the Arctic to study. Physical constraints imposed by the variable presence of sea ice in all stages of growth and melt make the upper water column and air–sea ice interface especially challenging to observe. At the same time, the flow of solar energy through Alaska’s marginal seas is one of the most important regulators of their weather and climate, sea ice cover, and ecosystems. The deficiency of observing systems in these areas hampers forecast services in the region and is a major contributor to large uncertainties in modeling and related climate projections. The Arctic Heat Open Science Experiment strives to fill this observation gap with an array of innovative autonomous floats and other near-real-time weather and ocean sensing systems. These capabilities allow continuous monitoring of the seasonally evolving state of the Chukchi Sea, including its heat content. Data collected by this project are distributed in near–real time on project websites and on the Global Telecommunications System (GTS), with the objectives of (i) providing timely delivery of observations for use in weather and sea ice forecasts, for model, and for reanalysis applications and (ii) supporting ongoing research activities across disciplines. This research supports improved forecast services that protect and enhance the safety and economic viability of maritime and coastal community activities in Alaska. Data are free and open to all (see
  • Preprint
    Changes in ocean heat, carbon content, and ventilation : a review of the first decade of GO-SHIP Global Repeat Hydrography
    ( 2015-05-30) Talley, Lynne D. ; Feely, Richard A. ; Sloyan, Bernadette M. ; Wanninkhof, Rik ; Baringer, Molly O. ; Bullister, John L. ; Carlson, Craig A. ; Doney, Scott C. ; Fine, Rana A. ; Firing, Eric ; Gruber, Nicolas ; Hansell, Dennis A. ; Ishii, Masayoshi ; Johnson, Gregory ; Katsumata, K. ; Key, Robert M. ; Kramp, Martin ; Langdon, Chris ; Macdonald, Alison M. ; Mathis, Jeremy T. ; McDonagh, Elaine L. ; Mecking, Sabine ; Millero, Frank J. ; Mordy, Calvin W. ; Nakano, T. ; Sabine, Chris L. ; Smethie, William M. ; Swift, James H. ; Tanhua, Toste ; Thurnherr, Andreas M. ; Warner, Mark J. ; Zhang, Jia-Zhong
    The ocean, a central component of Earth’s climate system, is changing. Given the global scope of these changes, highly accurate measurements of physical and biogeochemical properties need to be conducted over the full water column, spanning the ocean basins from coast to coast, and repeated every decade at a minimum, with a ship-based observing system. Since the late 1970s, when the Geochemical Ocean Sections Study (GEOSECS) conducted the first global survey of this kind, the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) and Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS), and now the Global Ocean Ship-based Hydrographic Investigations Program (GO-SHIP) have collected these “reference standard” data that allow quantification of ocean heat and carbon uptake, and variations in salinity, oxygen, nutrients, and acidity on basin scales. The evolving GO-SHIP measurement suite also provides new global information about dissolved organic carbon, a large bioactive reservoir of carbon.