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ArticleHydrological variations of the intermediate water masses of the western Mediterranean Sea during the past 20 ka inferred from neodymium isotopic composition in foraminifera and cold-water corals(Copernicus Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union, 2017-01-10) Dubois-Dauphin, Quentin ; Montagna, Paolo ; Siani, Giuseppe ; Douville, Eric ; Wienberg, Claudia ; Hebbeln, Dierk ; Liu, Zhifei ; Kallel, Nejib ; Dapoigny, Arnaud ; Revel, Marie ; Pons-Branchu, Edwige ; Taviani, Marco ; Colin, ChristopheWe present the neodymium isotopic composition (εNd) of mixed planktonic foraminifera species from a sediment core collected at 622 m water depth in the Balearic Sea, as well as εNd of scleractinian cold-water corals (CWC; Madrepora oculata, Lophelia pertusa) retrieved between 280 and 442 m water depth in the Alboran Sea and at 414 m depth in the southern Sardinian continental margin. The aim is to constrain hydrological variations at intermediate depths in the western Mediterranean Sea during the last 20 kyr. Planktonic (Globigerina bulloides) and benthic (Cibicidoides pachyderma) foraminifera from the Balearic Sea were also analyzed for stable oxygen (δ18O) and carbon (δ13C) isotopes. The foraminiferal and coral εNd values from the Balearic and Alboran seas are comparable over the last ∼ 13 kyr, with mean values of −8.94 ± 0.26 (1σ; n = 24) and −8.91 ± 0.18 (1σ; n = 25), respectively. Before 13 ka BP, the foraminiferal εNd values are slightly lower (−9.28 ± 0.15) and tend to reflect higher mixing between intermediate and deep waters, which are characterized by more unradiogenic εNd values. The slight εNd increase after 13 ka BP is associated with a decoupling in the benthic foraminiferal δ13C composition between intermediate and deeper depths, which started at ∼ 16 ka BP. This suggests an earlier stratification of the water masses and a subsequent reduced contribution of unradiogenic εNd from deep waters. The CWC from the Sardinia Channel show a much larger scatter of εNd values, from −8.66 ± 0.30 to −5.99 ± 0.50, and a lower average (−7.31 ± 0.73; n = 19) compared to the CWC and foraminifera from the Alboran and Balearic seas, indicative of intermediate waters sourced from the Levantine basin. At the time of sapropel S1 deposition (10.2 to 6.4 ka), the εNd values of the Sardinian CWC become more unradiogenic (−8.38 ± 0.47; n = 3 at ∼ 8.7 ka BP), suggesting a significant contribution of intermediate waters originated from the western basin. We propose that western Mediterranean intermediate waters replaced the Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW), and thus there was a strong reduction of the LIW during the mid-sapropel ( ∼ 8.7 ka BP). This observation supports a notable change of Mediterranean circulation pattern centered on sapropel S1 that needs further investigation to be confirmed.
ArticleChanges in the intermediate water masses of the Mediterranean Sea during the last climatic cycle-new constraints from neodymium isotopes in foraminifera(American Geophysical Union, 2021-02-15) Colin, Christophe ; Duhamel, Maxence ; Siani, Giuseppe ; Dubois-Dauphin, Quentin ; Ducassou, Emmanuelle ; Liu, Zhifei ; Wu, Jiawang ; Revel, Marie ; Dapoigny, Arnaud ; Douville, Eric ; Taviani, Marco ; Montagna, PaoloVariations in Mediterranean thermohaline circulation of the Quaternary are still not well constrained whereas they have been considered to have an influence on the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation and on the oxygenation of waters in the deep basins of the Mediterranean Sea. εNd analyses have been carried out on planktonic foraminifera of cores collected in the central Mediterranean Sea to constrain water mass exchange between the Eastern and Western Mediterranean Sea (EMS and WMS) during the last climatic cycle. εNd records from the WMS and EMS display similar higher values during warm substages of interglacial Marine Isotopic Stage (MIS) 1 and 5. This suggests an efficient connection between the two Mediterranean sub-basins and the transfer of radiogenic waters to the Tyrrhenian Sea via the Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW). Conversely, during glacial MIS, εNd of the intermediate depth of the Tyrrhenian Sea are less radiogenic than the EMS, implying limited hydrological connection between sub-basins during low sea-level stands. Superimposed on these glacial-interglacial variations, increased εNd occurred during Heinrich Stadial events. This suggests a reduction in the formation of unradiogenic WIW in the Gulf of Lions due to the input of relatively fresh surface Atlantic water to the WMS and/or the inflow of radiogenic glacial LIW and upper EMDW to the Tyrrhenian Sea as a result of an active EMS convection related to saltier and colder conditions. Such potential millennial-scale pulses of LIW intrusion into the Tyrrhenian Sea may have led to an enhanced Mediterranean Outflow Water intensity in the Gibraltar Strait.
ArticleInterlaboratory study for coral Sr/Ca and other element/Ca ratio measurements(John Wiley & Sons, 2013-09-23) Hathorne, Ed C. ; Gagnon, Alexander C. ; Felis, Thomas ; Adkins, Jess F. ; Asami, Ryuji ; Boer, Wim ; Caillon, Nicolas ; Case, David H. ; Cobb, Kim M. ; Douville, Eric ; deMenocal, Peter B. ; Eisenhauer, Anton ; Garbe-Schonberg, Dieter ; Geibert, Walter ; Goldstein, Steven L. ; Hughen, Konrad A. ; Inoue, Mayuri ; Kawahata, Hodaka ; Kolling, Martin ; Cornec, Florence L. ; Linsley, Braddock K. ; McGregor, Helen V. ; Montagna, Paolo ; Nurhati, Intan S. ; Quinn, Terrence M. ; Raddatz, Jacek ; Rebaubier, Helene ; Robinson, Laura F. ; Sadekov, Aleksey ; Sherrell, Robert M. ; Sinclair, Dan ; Tudhope, Alexander W. ; Wei, Gangjian ; Wong, Henri ; Wu, Henry C. ; You, Chen-FengThe Sr/Ca ratio of coral aragonite is used to reconstruct past sea surface temperature (SST). Twenty-one laboratories took part in an interlaboratory study of coral Sr/Ca measurements. Results show interlaboratory bias can be significant, and in the extreme case could result in a range in SST estimates of 7°C. However, most of the data fall within a narrower range and the Porites coral reference material JCp-1 is now characterized well enough to have a certified Sr/Ca value of 8.838 mmol/mol with an expanded uncertainty of 0.089 mmol/mol following International Association of Geoanalysts (IAG) guidelines. This uncertainty, at the 95% confidence level, equates to 1.5°C for SST estimates using Porites, so is approaching fitness for purpose. The comparable median within laboratory error is <0.5°C. This difference in uncertainties illustrates the interlaboratory bias component that should be reduced through the use of reference materials like the JCp-1. There are many potential sources contributing to biases in comparative methods but traces of Sr in Ca standards and uncertainties in reference solution composition can account for half of the combined uncertainty. Consensus values that fulfil the requirements to be certified values were also obtained for Mg/Ca in JCp-1 and for Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca ratios in the JCt-1 giant clam reference material. Reference values with variable fitness for purpose have also been obtained for Li/Ca, B/Ca, Ba/Ca, and U/Ca in both reference materials. In future, studies reporting coral element/Ca data should also report the average value obtained for a reference material such as the JCp-1.
ArticleNonvolcanic tectonic islands in ancient and modern oceans(John Wiley & Sons, 2013-10-24) Palmiotto, Camilla ; Corda, Laura ; Ligi, Marco ; Cipriani, Anna ; Dick, Henry J. B. ; Douville, Eric ; Gasperini, Luca ; Montagna, Paolo ; Thil, Francois ; Borsetti, Anna Maria ; Balestra, Barbara ; Bonatti, EnricoMost oceanic islands are due to excess volcanism caused by thermal and/or compositional mantle melting anomalies. We call attention here to another class of oceanic islands, due not to volcanism but to vertical motions of blocks of oceanic lithosphere related to transform tectonics. Sunken tectonic islands capped by carbonate platforms have been previously identified along the Vema and Romanche transforms in the equatorial Atlantic. We reprocessed seismic reflection lines, did new facies analyses and 87Sr/86Sr dating of carbonate samples from the carbonate platforms. A 50 km long narrow paleoisland flanking the Vema transform, underwent subsidence, erosion, and truncation at sea level; it was then capped by a 500 m thick carbonate platform dated by 87Sr/86Sr at ∼11–10 Ma. Three former islands on the crest of the Romanche transverse ridge are now at ∼900 m bsl; they show horizontal truncated surfaces of oceanic crust capped by ∼300 m thick carbonate platforms, with 10–6 Ma Sr isotopic ages. These sunken islands formed due to vertical tectonics related to transtension/transpression along long-offset slow-slip transforms. Another tectonic sunken island is Atlantis Bank, an uplifted gabbroic block along the Atlantis II transform (SW Indian Ridge) ∼700 m bsl. A modern tectonic island is St. Peter and St. Paul Rocks, a rising slab of upper mantle located at the St. Paul transform (equatorial Atlantic). “Cold” tectonic islands contrast with “hot” volcanic islands related to mantle thermal and/or compositional anomalies along accretionary boundaries and within oceanic plates, or to supra-subduction mantle melting that gives rise to islands arcs.