Oliveira Tiago C. A.

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Tiago C. A.

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  • Article
    Megameter propagation and correlation of T-waves from Kermadec Trench and Islands
    (Frontiers Media, 2022-11-15) Oliveira, Tiago C. A. ; Nielsen, Peter ; Lin, Ying-Tsong ; Kushida, Noriyuki ; Jesus, Sérgio M.
    On 18 June 2020 and 4 March 2021, very energetic low-frequency underwater T-wave signals (2 to 25 Hz) were recorded at the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) International Monitoring System (IMS) hydrophone stations in the Pacific Ocean (Stations HA11 and HA03) and the South Atlantic Ocean (Station HA10). This work investigates the long-range (megameters) propagation of these T-waves. Their sources were three powerful submarine earthquakes in the Kermadec Trench and Islands, located at approximately 6000, 8800, and 15100 km from Stations HA11, HA03, and HA10, respectively. Arrival time and back azimuth of the recorded T-waves were estimated using the Progressive Multi-Channel Correlation algorithm installed on the CTBT Organization (CTBTO) virtual Data Exploitation Centre (vDEC). Different arrivals within the duration of the earthquake signals were identified, and their correlations were also analyzed. The data analysis at HA03 and HA10 revealed intriguing T-wave propagation paths reflecting, refracting, or even transmitting through continents, as well as T-wave excitation along a chain of seamounts. The analysis also showed much higher transmission loss (TL) in the propagation paths to HA11 than to HA03 and HA10. Moreover, strong discrepancies between expected and measured back azimuths were observed for HA11, and a three-dimensional (3D) parabolic equation model was utilized to identify the cause of these differences. Numerical results revealed the importance of 3D effects induced by the Kermadec Ridge, Fiji archipelago, and Marshall Islands on T-wave propagation to HA11. This analysis can guide future improvements in underwater event localization using the CTBT-IMS hydroacoustic sensor network.
  • Article
    Underwater sound propagation modeling in a complex shallow water environment
    (Frontiers Media, 2021-10-15) Oliveira, Tiago C. A. ; Lin, Ying-Tsong ; Porter, Michael B.
    Three-dimensional (3D) effects can profoundly influence underwater sound propagation in shallow-water environments, hence, affecting the underwater soundscape. Various geological features and coastal oceanographic processes can cause horizontal reflection, refraction, and diffraction of underwater sound. In this work, the ability of a parabolic equation (PE) model to simulate sound propagation in the extremely complicated shallow water environment of Long Island Sound (United States east coast) is investigated. First, the 2D and 3D versions of the PE model are compared with state-of-the-art normal mode and beam tracing models for two idealized cases representing the local environment in the Sound: (i) a 2D 50-m flat bottom and (ii) a 3D shallow water wedge. After that, the PE model is utilized to model sound propagation in three realistic local scenarios in the Sound. Frequencies of 500 and 1500 Hz are considered in all the simulations. In general, transmission loss (TL) results provided by the PE, normal mode and beam tracing models tend to agree with each other. Differences found emerge with (1) increasing the bathymetry complexity, (2) expanding the propagation range, and (3) approaching the limits of model applicability. The TL results from 3D PE simulations indicate that sound propagating along sand bars can experience significant 3D effects. Indeed, for the complex shallow bathymetry found in some areas of Long Island Sound, it is challenging for the models to track the interference effects in the sound pattern. Results emphasize that when choosing an underwater sound propagation model for practical applications in a complex shallow-water environment, a compromise will be made between the numerical model accuracy, computational time, and validity.