Oliveira Tiago C. A.

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Tiago C. A.

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  • Article
    Three-dimensional modeling of T-wave generation and propagation from a South Mid-Atlantic Ridge earthquake
    (Acoustical Society of America, 2021-11-19) Lecoulant, Jean ; Oliveira, Tiago C. A. ; Lin, Ying-Tsong
    A three-dimensional (3D) hybrid modeling method is used to study the generation and propagation of T waves in the ocean triggered by a Southern Mid-Atlantic Ridge earthquake. First, a finite-element method model named SPECFEM3D is used to propagate seismic waves in the crust and acoustic waves in the ocean for the T-wave generation in a 200 × 50 km area near the epicenter. A 3D parabolic equation (PE) method is then used to propagate the T waves in the ocean for about 850 km further to the hydrophone stations deployed by the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) near Ascension Island. All of the simulations considered the realistic bathymetry and water sound speed profile. The SPECFEM3D results suggest that T waves with clear modal features could be generated by the concentration of reflected head waves in two depressions 40 km away from the epicenter. To compare with the hybrid modeling method for calculating T-wave propagation losses and arrival azimuths at the CTBTO hydrophones, point source simulations using the 3D PE model from the T waves source locations, identified with SPECFEM3D, were also implemented. The advantages and limitations of each approach are discussed.
  • Article
    T-wave propagation from the Pacific to the Atlantic: the 2020 M7.4 Kermadec Trench earthquake case
    (Acoustical Society of America, 2021-12-13) Oliveira, Tiago C. A. ; Lin, Ying-Tsong ; Kushida, Noriyuki ; Jesus, Sérgio M. ; Nielsen, Peter
    An Mw7.4 submarine earthquake occurred in the Kermadec Trench, northeast of New Zealand, on 18 June, 2020. This powerful earthquake triggered energetic tertiary waves (T-waves) that propagated through the South Pacific Ocean into the South Atlantic Ocean, where the T-waves were recorded by a hydrophone station near Ascension Island, 15 127 km away from the epicenter. Different T-wave arrivals were identified during the earthquake period with arrival angles deviating from the geodesic path. A three-dimensional sound propagation model has been utilized to investigate the cause of the deviation and confirm the horizontal diffraction of the T-waves at the Drake Passage.
  • Article
    Megameter propagation and correlation of T-waves from Kermadec Trench and Islands
    (Frontiers Media, 2022-11-15) Oliveira, Tiago C. A. ; Nielsen, Peter ; Lin, Ying-Tsong ; Kushida, Noriyuki ; Jesus, Sérgio M.
    On 18 June 2020 and 4 March 2021, very energetic low-frequency underwater T-wave signals (2 to 25 Hz) were recorded at the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) International Monitoring System (IMS) hydrophone stations in the Pacific Ocean (Stations HA11 and HA03) and the South Atlantic Ocean (Station HA10). This work investigates the long-range (megameters) propagation of these T-waves. Their sources were three powerful submarine earthquakes in the Kermadec Trench and Islands, located at approximately 6000, 8800, and 15100 km from Stations HA11, HA03, and HA10, respectively. Arrival time and back azimuth of the recorded T-waves were estimated using the Progressive Multi-Channel Correlation algorithm installed on the CTBT Organization (CTBTO) virtual Data Exploitation Centre (vDEC). Different arrivals within the duration of the earthquake signals were identified, and their correlations were also analyzed. The data analysis at HA03 and HA10 revealed intriguing T-wave propagation paths reflecting, refracting, or even transmitting through continents, as well as T-wave excitation along a chain of seamounts. The analysis also showed much higher transmission loss (TL) in the propagation paths to HA11 than to HA03 and HA10. Moreover, strong discrepancies between expected and measured back azimuths were observed for HA11, and a three-dimensional (3D) parabolic equation model was utilized to identify the cause of these differences. Numerical results revealed the importance of 3D effects induced by the Kermadec Ridge, Fiji archipelago, and Marshall Islands on T-wave propagation to HA11. This analysis can guide future improvements in underwater event localization using the CTBT-IMS hydroacoustic sensor network.
  • Article
    Underwater sound propagation modeling in a complex shallow water environment
    (Frontiers Media, 2021-10-15) Oliveira, Tiago C. A. ; Lin, Ying-Tsong ; Porter, Michael B.
    Three-dimensional (3D) effects can profoundly influence underwater sound propagation in shallow-water environments, hence, affecting the underwater soundscape. Various geological features and coastal oceanographic processes can cause horizontal reflection, refraction, and diffraction of underwater sound. In this work, the ability of a parabolic equation (PE) model to simulate sound propagation in the extremely complicated shallow water environment of Long Island Sound (United States east coast) is investigated. First, the 2D and 3D versions of the PE model are compared with state-of-the-art normal mode and beam tracing models for two idealized cases representing the local environment in the Sound: (i) a 2D 50-m flat bottom and (ii) a 3D shallow water wedge. After that, the PE model is utilized to model sound propagation in three realistic local scenarios in the Sound. Frequencies of 500 and 1500 Hz are considered in all the simulations. In general, transmission loss (TL) results provided by the PE, normal mode and beam tracing models tend to agree with each other. Differences found emerge with (1) increasing the bathymetry complexity, (2) expanding the propagation range, and (3) approaching the limits of model applicability. The TL results from 3D PE simulations indicate that sound propagating along sand bars can experience significant 3D effects. Indeed, for the complex shallow bathymetry found in some areas of Long Island Sound, it is challenging for the models to track the interference effects in the sound pattern. Results emphasize that when choosing an underwater sound propagation model for practical applications in a complex shallow-water environment, a compromise will be made between the numerical model accuracy, computational time, and validity.