Zhang H.

No Thumbnail Available
Last Name
First Name

Search Results

Now showing 1 - 2 of 2
  • Article
    Imaging along-strike variations in mechanical properties of the Gofar transform fault, East Pacific Rise
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2014-09-23) Froment, B. ; McGuire, Jeffrey J. ; van der Hilst, R. D. ; Gouedard, P. ; Roland, Emily C. ; Zhang, H. ; Collins, John A.
    A large part of global plate motion on mid-ocean ridge transform faults (RTFs) is not accommodated as major earthquakes. When large earthquakes do occur, they often repeat quasiperiodically. We focus here on the high slip rate (∼14 cm/yr) Gofar transform fault on the equatorial East Pacific Rise. This fault is subdivided into patches that slip during Mw 5.5–6 earthquakes every 5 to 6 years. These patches are separated by rupture barriers that accommodate slip through swarms of smaller events and/or aseismic creep. We performed an imaging study to investigate which spatiotemporal variations of the fault zone properties control this segmentation in mechanical behavior and could explain the specific behavior of RTFs at the global scale. We adopt a double-difference approach in a joint inversion of active air gun shots and microseismicity recorded for 1 year. This data set includes the 2008 Mw 6 Gofar earthquake. The along-strike P wave velocity structure reveals an abrupt transition between the barrier area, characterized by a damaged fault zone of 10–20% reduced Vp and a nearly intact fault zone in the asperity area. The importance of the strength of the damage zone on the mechanical behavior is supported by the temporal S wave velocity changes which suggest increased damage within the barrier area, during the week preceding the Mw 6 earthquake. Our results support the conclusion that extended highly damaged zones are the key factor in limiting the role of major earthquakes to accommodate plate motion along RTFs.
  • Preprint
    Size-fractionated labile trace elements in the Northwest Pacific and Southern Oceans
    ( 2011-04-11) Baeyens, W. ; Bowie, Andrew R. ; Buesseler, Ken O. ; Gao, Y. ; Lamborg, Carl H. ; Remenyi, Tomas A. ; Zhang, H.
    Photosynthesis by marine phytoplankton requires bioavailable forms of several trace elements that are found in extremely low concentrations in the open ocean. We have compared the concentration, lability and size distribution (< 1 nm and < 10 nm) of a suite of trace elements that are thought to be limiting to primary productivity as well as a toxic element (Pb) in two High Nutrient Low Chlorophyll (HNLC) regions using a new dynamic speciation technique, Diffusive Gradients in Thin-film (DGT). The labile species trapped within the DGT probes have a size that is smaller or similar than the pore size of algal cell walls and thus present a proxy for bioavailable species. Total Dissolvable trace element concentrations (TD concentration) varied between 0.05 nM (Co) and 4.0 nM (Ni) at K2 (Northwest Pacific Ocean) and between 0.026 nM (Co) and 4.7 nM (Ni) in the Southern Ocean. The smallest size fractionated labile concentrations (< 1 nm) observed at Southern Ocean sampling stations ranged between 0.002 nM (Co) and 2.1 nM (Ni). Moreover, large differences in bioavailable fractions (ratio of labile to TD concentration) were observed between the trace elements. In the Northwest Pacific Ocean Fe, Cu and Mn had lower labile fractions (between 10 and 44%) than Co, Cd, Ni and Pb (between 80 and 100%). In the Southern Ocean a similar trend was observed, and in addition: (1) Co, Cd, Ni and Pb have lower labile fractions in the Southern Ocean than in the Northwest Pacific and (2) the ratios of <1nm to dissolvable element concentrations at some Southern Ocean stations were very low and varied between 4 and16 %.