Oliphint Paul A.

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Paul A.

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Acute increase of α-synuclein inhibits synaptic vesicle recycling evoked during intense stimulation

2014-10-01 , Busch, David J. , Oliphint, Paul A. , Walsh, Rylie B. , Banks, Susan M. L. , Woods, Wendy S. , George, Julia M. , Morgan, Jennifer R.

Parkinson's disease is associated with multiplication of the α-synuclein gene and abnormal accumulation of the protein. In animal models, α-synuclein overexpression broadly impairs synaptic vesicle trafficking. However, the exact steps of the vesicle trafficking pathway affected by excess α-synuclein and the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Therefore we acutely increased synuclein levels at a vertebrate synapse and performed a detailed ultrastructural analysis of the effects on presynaptic membranes. At stimulated synapses (20 Hz), excess synuclein caused a loss of synaptic vesicles and an expansion of the plasma membrane, indicating an impairment of vesicle recycling. The N-terminal domain (NTD) of synuclein, which folds into an α-helix, was sufficient to reproduce these effects. In contrast, α-synuclein mutants with a disrupted N-terminal α-helix (T6K and A30P) had little effect under identical conditions. Further supporting this model, another α-synuclein mutant (A53T) with a properly folded NTD phenocopied the synaptic vesicle recycling defects observed with wild type. Interestingly, the vesicle recycling defects were not observed when the stimulation frequency was reduced (5 Hz). Thus excess α-synuclein impairs synaptic vesicle recycling evoked during intense stimulation via a mechanism that requires a properly folded N-terminal α-helix.

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A role for an Hsp70 nucleotide exchange factor in the regulation of synaptic vesicle endocytosis

2013-05-01 , Morgan, Jennifer R. , Jiang, Jianwen , Oliphint, Paul A. , Jin, Suping , Gimenez, Luis E. , Busch, David J. , Foldes, Andrea E. , Zhuo, Yue , Sousa, Rui , Lafer, Eileen M.

Neurotransmission requires a continuously available pool of synaptic vesicles (SVs) that can fuse with the plasma membrane and release their neurotransmitter contents upon stimulation. After fusion, SV membranes and membrane proteins are retrieved from the presynaptic plasma membrane by clathrin-mediated endocytosis. After the internalization of a clathrin-coated vesicle, the vesicle must uncoat to replenish the pool of SVs. Clathrin-coated vesicle uncoating requires ATP and is mediated by the ubiquitous molecular chaperone Hsc70. In vitro, depolymerized clathrin forms a stable complex with Hsc70*ADP. This complex can be dissociated by nucleotide exchange factors (NEFs) that release ADP from Hsc70, allowing ATP to bind and induce disruption of the clathrin:Hsc70 association. Whether NEFs generally play similar roles in vesicle trafficking in vivo and whether they play such roles in SV endocytosis in particular is unknown. To address this question, we used information from recent structural and mechanistic studies of Hsp70:NEF and Hsp70:co-chaperone interactions to design a NEF inhibitor. Using acute perturbations at giant reticulospinal synapses of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), we found that this NEF inhibitor inhibited SV endocytosis. When this inhibitor was mutated so that it could no longer bind and inhibit Hsp110 (a NEF that we find to be highly abundant in brain cytosol), its ability to inhibit SV endocytosis was eliminated. These observations indicate that the action of a NEF, most likely Hsp110, is normally required during SV trafficking to release clathrin from Hsc70 and make it available for additional rounds of endocytosis.