Udovydchenkov Ilya A.

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Ilya A.

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  • Preprint
    Array design considerations for exploitation of stable weakly dispersive modal pulses in the deep ocean
    ( 2017-04-07) Udovydchenkov, Ilya A.
    Modal pulses are broadband contributions to an acoustic wave field with fixed mode number. Stable weakly dispersive modal pulses (SWDMPs) are special modal pulses that are characterized by weak dispersion and weak scattering-induced broadening and are thus suitable for communications applications. This paper investigates, using numerical simulations, receiver array requirements for recovering information carried by SWDMPs under various signal-to-noise ratio conditions without performing channel equalization. Two groups of weakly dispersive modal pulses are common in typical mid-latitude deep ocean environments: the lowest order modes (typically modes 1–3 at 75 Hz), and intermediate order modes whose waveguide invariant is near-zero (often around mode 20 at 75 Hz). Information loss is quantified by the bit error rate (BER) of a recovered binary phase-coded signal. With fixed receiver depths, low BERs (less than 1%) are achieved at ranges up to 400 km with three hydrophones for mode 1 with 90% probability and with 34 hydrophones for mode 20 with 80% probability. With optimal receiver depths, depending on propagation range, only a few, sometimes only two, hydrophones are often sufficient for low BERs, even with intermediate mode numbers. Full modal resolution is unnecessary to achieve low BERs. Thus, a flexible receiver array of autonomous vehicles can outperform a cabled array.
  • Article
    Piecewise coherent mode processing of acoustic data recorded on two horizontally separated vertical line arrays
    (Acoustical Society of America, 2012-05-25) Udovydchenkov, Ilya A. ; Brown, Michael G. ; Duda, Timothy F.
    Motivated by measurements made in the 2004 Long-Range Ocean Acoustic Propagation Experiment (LOAPEX), the problem of mode processing transient acoustic signals collected on two nearby vertical line arrays is considered. The first three moments (centroid, variance, and skewness) of broadband distributions of acoustic energy with fixed mode number (referred to as modal group arrivals) are estimated. It is shown that despite the absence of signal coherence between the two arrays and poor high mode number energy resolution, the centroid and variance of these distributions can be estimated with tolerable errors using piecewise coherent mode processing as described in this paper.
  • Article
    Modal analysis of the range evolution of broadband wavefields in the North Pacific Ocean : low mode numbers
    (Acoustical Society of America, 2012-06) Udovydchenkov, Ilya A. ; Brown, Michael G. ; Duda, Timothy F. ; Mercer, James A. ; Andrew, Rex K. ; Worcester, Peter F. ; Dzieciuch, Matthew A. ; Howe, Bruce M. ; Colosi, John A.
    The results of mode-processing measurements of broadband acoustic wavefields made in the fall of 2004 as part of the Long-Range Ocean Acoustic Propagation Experiment (LOAPEX) in the eastern North Pacific Ocean are reported here. Transient wavefields in the 50–90 Hz band that were recorded on a 1400 -m long 40 element vertical array centered near the sound channel axis are analyzed. This array was designed to resolve low-order modes. The wavefields were excited by a ship-suspended source at seven ranges, between approximately 50 and 3200 km, from the receiving array. The range evolution of broadband modal arrival patterns corresponding to fixed mode numbers (“modal group arrivals”) is analyzed with an emphasis on the second (variance) and third (skewness) moments. A theory of modal group time spreads is described, emphasizing complexities associated with energy scattering among low-order modes. The temporal structure of measured modal group arrivals is compared to theoretical predictions and numerical simulations. Theory, simulations, and observations generally agree. In cases where disagreement is observed, the reasons for the disagreement are discussed in terms of the underlying physical processes and data limitations.
  • Technical Report
    Ocean Bottom Seismometer Augmentation in the North Pacific (OBSANP) - cruise report
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2014-12) Stephen, Ralph A. ; Worcester, Peter F. ; Udovydchenkov, Ilya A. ; Aaron, Ernie ; Bolmer, S. Thompson ; Carey, Scott ; McPeak, Sean P. ; Swift, Stephen A. ; Dzieciuch, Matthew A.
    The Ocean Bottom Seismometer Augmentation in the North Pacific Experiment (OBSANP, June-July, 2013, R/V Melville) addresses the coherence and depth dependence of deep-water ambient noise and signals. During the 2004 NPAL Experiment in the North Pacific Ocean, in addition to predicted ocean acoustic arrivals and deep shadow zone arrivals, we observed "deep seafloor arrivals" (DSFA) that were dominant on the seafloor Ocean Bottom Seismometer (OBS) (at about 5000m depth) but were absent or very weak on the Distributed Vertical Line Array (DVLA) (above 4250m depth). At least a subset of these arrivals correspond to bottomdiffracted surface-reflected (BDSR) paths from an out-of-plane seamount. BDSR arrivals are present throughout the water column, but at depths above the conjugate depth are obscured by ambient noise and PE predicted arrivals. On the 2004 NPAL/LOAPEX experiment BDSR paths yielded the largest amplitude seafloor arrivals for ranges from 500 to 3200km. The OBSANP experiment tests the hypothesis that BDSR paths contribute to the arrival structure on the deep seafloor even at short ranges (from near zero to 4-1/2CZ). The OBSANP cruise had three major research goals: a) identification and analysis of DSFA and BDSR arrivals occurring at short (1/2CZ) ranges in the 50 to 400Hz band, b) analysis of deep sea ambient noise in the band 0.03 to 80Hz, and c) analysis of the frequency dependence of BR and SRBR paths. On OBSANP we deployed a 32 element VLA from 12 to 1000m above the seafloor, eight short-period OBSs and four long-period OBSs and carried out a 15day transmission program using a J15-3 acoustic source.
  • Presentation
    Three-dimensional numerical modeling of bottom-diffracted surface-reflected arrivals in the North Pacific [poster]
    ( 2015-12-15) Stephen, Ralph A. ; Udovydchenkov, Ilya A. ; Bolmer, S. Thompson ; Komatitsch, Dimitri ; Tromp, Jeroen ; Casarotti, Emanuele ; Xie, Zhinan ; Worcester, Peter F.
    Bottom-diffracted surface-reflected (BDSR) arrivals were first identified in the 2004 Long-range Ocean Acoustic Propagation Experiment (Stephen et al, 2013, JASA, v.134, p.3307-3317). The BDSR mechanism provides a means for acoustic signals and noise from distant sources to appear with significant strength on the deep seafloor. At depths deeper than the conjugate depth ambient noise and PE- predicted arrivals are sufficiently quiet that BDSR paths, scattered from small seamounts, can be the largest amplitude arrivals observed. The Ocean Bottom Seismometer Augmentation in the North Pacific (OBSANP) Experiment in June-July 2013 was designed to further define the characteristics of the BDSRs and to understand the conditions under which BDSRs are excited and propagate. The reciprocal of the BDSR mechanism also plays a role in T-phase excitation. To further understand the BDSR mechanism, the SPECFEM3D code was extended to handle high-frequency, deep water bottom scattering problems with actual bathymetry and a typical sound speed profile in the water column. The model size is 38km x 27km x 6.5km. The source is centered at 10Hz with a 5Hz bandwidth. Work supported by NSF and ONR.
  • Article
    Modeling and analysis of internal-tide generation and beamlike onshore propagation in the vicinity of shelfbreak canyons
    (American Meteorological Society, 2014-03) Zhang, Weifeng G. ; Duda, Timothy F. ; Udovydchenkov, Ilya A.
    A hydrostatic numerical model with alongshore-uniform barotropic M2 tidal boundary forcing and idealized shelfbreak canyon bathymetries is used to study internal-tide generation and onshore propagation. A control simulation with Mid-Atlantic Bight representative bathymetry is supported by other simulations that serve to identify specific processes. The canyons and adjacent slopes are transcritical in steepness with respect to M2 internal wave characteristics. Although the various canyons are symmetrical in structure, barotropic-to-baroclinic energy conversion rates Cυ are typically asymmetrical within them. The resulting onshore-propagating internal waves are the strongest along beams in the horizontal plane, with the stronger beam in the control simulation lying on the side with higher Cυ. Analysis of the simulation results suggests that the cross-canyon asymmetrical Cυ distributions are caused by multiple-scattering effects on one canyon side slope, because the phase variation in the spatially distributed internal-tide sources, governed by variations in the orientation of the bathymetry gradient vector, allows resonant internal-tide generation. A less complex, semianalytical, modal internal wave propagation model with sources placed along the critical-slope locus (where the M2 internal wave characteristic is tangent to the seabed) and variable source phasing is used to diagnose the physics of the horizontal beams of onshore internal wave radiation. Model analysis explains how the cross-canyon phase and amplitude variations in the locally generated internal tides affect parameters of the internal-tide beams. Under the assumption that strong internal tides on continental shelves evolve to include nonlinear wave trains, the asymmetrical internal-tide generation and beam radiation effects may lead to nonlinear internal waves and enhanced mixing occurring preferentially on one side of shelfbreak canyons, in the absence of other influencing factors.
  • Article
    Weakly dispersive modal pulse propagation in the North Pacific Ocean
    (Acoustical Society of America, 2013-10) Udovydchenkov, Ilya A. ; Brown, Michael G. ; Duda, Timothy F. ; Worcester, Peter F. ; Dzieciuch, Matthew A. ; Mercer, James A. ; Andrew, Rex K. ; Howe, Bruce M. ; Colosi, John A.
    The propagation of weakly dispersive modal pulses is investigated using data collected during the 2004 long-range ocean acoustic propagation experiment (LOAPEX). Weakly dispersive modal pulses are characterized by weak dispersion- and scattering-induced pulse broadening; such modal pulses experience minimal propagation-induced distortion and are thus well suited to communications applications. In the LOAPEX environment modes 1, 2, and 3 are approximately weakly dispersive. Using LOAPEX observations it is shown that, by extracting the energy carried by a weakly dispersive modal pulse, a transmitted communications signal can be recovered without performing channel equalization at ranges as long as 500 km; at that range a majority of mode 1 receptions have bit error rates (BERs) less than 10%, and 6.5% of mode 1 receptions have no errors. BERs are estimated for low order modes and compared with measurements of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and modal pulse spread. Generally, it is observed that larger modal pulse spread and lower SNR result in larger BERs.
  • Article
    Mode filters and energy conservation
    (Acoustical Society of America, 2010-04-07) Udovydchenkov, Ilya A. ; Rypina, Irina I. ; Brown, Michael G.
    The discrete form of the mode filtering problem is considered. The relevant equations constitute a linear inverse problem. Solutions to problems of this type are subject to a well-known trade-off between resolution and precision. But unlike the typical linear inverse problem, the correctly formulated mode filtering problem is subject to an energy conservation constraint. This letter focuses on the importance of satisfying, approximately at least, the energy conservation constraint when mode filtering is performed.
  • Article
    Eulerian and Lagrangian correspondence of high-frequency radar and surface drifter data : effects of radar resolution and flow components
    (American Meteorological Society, 2014-04) Rypina, Irina I. ; Kirincich, Anthony R. ; Limeburner, Richard ; Udovydchenkov, Ilya A.
    This study investigated the correspondence between the near-surface drifters from a mass drifter deployment near Martha’s Vineyard, Massachusetts, and the surface current observations from a network of three high-resolution, high-frequency radars to understand the effects of the radar temporal and spatial resolution on the resulting Eulerian current velocities and Lagrangian trajectories and their predictability. The radar-based surface currents were found to be unbiased in direction but biased in magnitude with respect to drifter velocities. The radar systematically underestimated velocities by approximately 2 cm s−1 due to the smoothing effects of spatial and temporal averaging. The radar accuracy, quantified by the domain-averaged rms difference between instantaneous radar and drifter velocities, was found to be about 3.8 cm s−1. A Lagrangian comparison between the real and simulated drifters resulted in the separation distances of roughly 1 km over the course of 10 h, or an equivalent separation speed of approximately 2.8 cm s−1. The effects of the temporal and spatial radar resolution were examined by degrading the radar fields to coarser resolutions, revealing the existence of critical scales (1.5–2 km and 3 h) beyond which the ability of the radar to reproduce drifter trajectories decreased more rapidly. Finally, the importance of the different flow components present during the experiment—mean, tidal, locally wind-driven currents, and the residual velocities—was analyzed, finding that, during the study period, a combination of tidal, locally wind-driven, and mean currents were insufficient to reliably reproduce, with minimal degradation, the trajectories of real drifters. Instead, a minimum combination of the tidal and residual currents was required.
  • Article
    Three-dimensional bottom diffraction in the North Pacific
    (Acoustical Society of America, 2019-09-30) Stephen, Ralph A. ; Bolmer, S. Thompson ; Worcester, Peter F. ; Dzieciuch, Matthew A. ; Udovydchenkov, Ilya A.
    A significant aspect of bottom-interaction in deep water acoustic propagation, from point sources to point receivers, is the diffraction (or scattering) of energy from discrete seafloor locations along repeatable, deterministic paths in three-dimensions. These bottom-diffracted surface-reflected (BDSR) paths were first identified on the North Pacific acoustic laboratory experiment in 2004 (NPAL04) for a diffractor located on the side of a small seamount. On the adjacent deep seafloor, ambient noise and propagation in the ocean sound channel were sufficiently quiet that the BDSRs were the dominant arrival. The ocean bottom seismometer augmentation in the North Pacific (OBSANP) experiment in June–July 2013 studied BDSRs at the NPAL04 site in more detail. BDSRs are most readily identified by the arrival time of pulses as a function of range to the receiver for a line of transmissions. The diffraction points for BDSRs occur on the relatively featureless deep seafloor as well as on the sides of small seamounts. Although the NPAL04 and OBSANP experiments had very different geometries the same diffractor location is consistent with observed arrivals in both experiments within the resolution of the analysis. On OBSANP the same location excites BDSRs for 77.5, 155, and 310 Hz transmissions.
  • Technical Report
    Analysis of Deep Seafloor Arrivals observed on NPAL04
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2012-12) Stephen, Ralph A. ; Bolmer, S. Thompson ; Udovydchenkov, Ilya A. ; Dzieciuch, Matthew A. ; Worcester, Peter F. ; Andrew, Rex K. ; Mercer, James A. ; Colosi, John A. ; Howe, Bruce M.
    This report gives an overview of the analysis that was done on Deep Seafloor Arrivals since they were initially presented in Stephen et al (2009). All of the NPAL04/LOAPEX (North Pacific Acoustic Laboratory, 2004/ Long Range Ocean Acoustic Propagation Experiment) data on three ocean bottom seismometers (OBSs) at ~5,000m depth and the deepest element of the deep vertical line array (DVLA) at 4250m depth has been analyzed. A distinctive pattern of late arrivals was observed on the three OBSs for transmissions from T500 to T2300. The delays of these arrivals with respect to the parabolic equation predicted (PEP) path were the same for all ranges from 500 to 2300km, indicating that the delay was introduced near the receivers. At 500km range the same arrival was observed throughout the water column on the DVLA. We show that arrivals in this pattern converted from a PEP path to a bottom-diffracted surface reflected (BDSR) path at an off-geodesic seamount.
  • Article
    Modeling deep ocean shipping noise in varying acidity conditions
    (Acoustical Society of America, 2010-08-19) Udovydchenkov, Ilya A. ; Duda, Timothy F. ; Doney, Scott C. ; Lima, Ivan D.
    Possible future changes of ambient shipping noise at 0.1–1 kHz in the North Pacific caused by changing seawater chemistry conditions are analyzed with a simplified propagation model. Probable decreases of pH would cause meaningful reduction of the sound absorption coefficient in near-surface ocean water for these frequencies. The results show that a few decibels of increase may occur in 100 years in some very quiet areas very far from noise sources, with small effects closer to noise sources. The use of ray physics allows sound energy attenuated via volume absorption and by the seafloor to be compared.
  • Article
    Bottom interacting sound at 50 km range in a deep ocean environment
    (Acoustical Society of America, 2012-10) Udovydchenkov, Ilya A. ; Stephen, Ralph A. ; Duda, Timothy F. ; Bolmer, S. Thompson ; Worcester, Peter F. ; Dzieciuch, Matthew A. ; Mercer, James A. ; Andrew, Rex K. ; Howe, Bruce M.
    Data collected during the 2004 Long-range Ocean Acoustic Propagation Experiment provide absolute intensities and travel times of acoustic pulses at ranges varying from 50 to 3200 km. In this paper a subset of these data is analyzed, focusing on the effects of seafloor reflections at the shortest transmission range of approximately 50 km. At this range bottom-reflected (BR) and surface-reflected, bottom-reflected energy interferes with refracted arrivals. For a finite vertical receiving array spanning the sound channel axis, a high mode number energy in the BR arrivals aliases into low mode numbers because of the vertical spacing between hydrophones. Therefore, knowledge of the BR paths is necessary to fully understand even low mode number processes. Acoustic modeling using the parabolic equation method shows that inclusion of range-dependent bathymetry is necessary to get an acceptable model-data fit. The bottom is modeled as a fluid layer without rigidity, without three dimensional effects, and without scattering from wavelength-scale features. Nonetheless, a good model-data fit is obtained for sub-bottom properties estimated from the data.
  • Presentation
    Three-dimensional numerical modeling of sound propagation and scattering in the deep ocean with elastic bottoms [poster]
    ( 2014-02-25) Udovydchenkov, Ilya A. ; Stephen, Ralph A. ; Komatitsch, Dimitri ; Xie, Zhinan ; Tromp, Jeroen
    A challenging problem in bottom-interacting ocean acoustics and marine seismology is to accurately describe environmental variability in a computationally feasible model. Wave field predictions are often difficult in environments with strong range dependence, with rapid bathymetric variations, with multiple scattering regions, with interface waves at fluid/solid boundaries, and/or with shear waves in the bottom. In this presentation, we are using an existing three-dimensional spectral-finite-element code (SPECFEM3D, distributed and supported by the NSF funded program, Computational Infrastructure for Geodynamics), originally developed for simulations of seismic wave propagation at the local or regional scale, to bottom interaction problems in underwater acoustics. Recent developments of the SPECFEM3D model include full compressional attenuation in elastic media and improved transparent boundary conditions. Numerical results from SPECFEM3D are compared with wave fields simulated using acoustic propagation model based on the parabolic equation (PE) method, for a 10 Hz broadband acoustic pulse propagating in the deep ocean. The importance of out-of-plane scattering and bottom shear properties on resulting wave fields are investigated.
  • Article
    Deep seafloor arrivals in long range ocean acoustic propagation
    (Acoustical Society of America, 2013-10) Stephen, Ralph A. ; Bolmer, S. Thompson ; Udovydchenkov, Ilya A. ; Worcester, Peter F. ; Dzieciuch, Matthew A. ; Andrew, Rex K. ; Mercer, James A. ; Colosi, John A. ; Howe, Bruce M.
    Ocean bottom seismometer observations at 5000 m depth during the long-range ocean acoustic propagation experiment in the North Pacific in 2004 show robust, coherent, late arrivals that are not readily explained by ocean acoustic propagation models. These “deep seafloor” arrivals are the largest amplitude arrivals on the vertical particle velocity channel for ranges from 500 to 3200 km. The travel times for six (of 16 observed) deep seafloor arrivals correspond to the sea surface reflection of an out-of-plane diffraction from a seamount that protrudes to about 4100 m depth and is about 18 km from the receivers. This out-of-plane bottom-diffracted surface-reflected energy is observed on the deep vertical line array about 35 dB below the peak amplitude arrivals and was previously misinterpreted as in-plane bottom-reflected surface-reflected energy. The structure of these arrivals from 500 to 3200 km range is remarkably robust. The bottom-diffracted surface-reflected mechanism provides a means for acoustic signals and noise from distant sources to appear with significant strength on the deep seafloor.
  • Technical Report
    NPAL04 OBS data analysis part 1 : kinematics of deep seafloor arrivals
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2008-12) Stephen, Ralph A. ; Bolmer, S. Thompson ; Udovydchenkov, Ilya A. ; Worcester, Peter F. ; Dzieciuch, Matthew A. ; Van Uffelen, Lora J. ; Mercer, James A. ; Andrew, Rex K. ; Buck, Linda J. ; Colosi, John A. ; Howe, Bruce M.
    These notes provide supporting information for a JASA (Journal of the Acoustical Society of America) LttE (Letter to the Editor) manuscript, "Deep seafloor arrivals: A new class of arrivals in long-range ocean acoustic propagation" (Stephen et al., submitted). It addresses five issues raised by the co-authors: 1) incorrect processing for the time-compressed traces at T2300 and T3200 that appeared in an early version of the LttE (T2300, T3200 … refer to transmissions at 2300, 3200km etc from the DVLA (Deep Vertical Line Array)), 2) processing issues, including the trade-offs between coherent and incoherent stacking and corrections for the effects of moving sources and receivers and tidal currents (Doppler), 4) the distinction between "deep shadow zone arrivals", which occur below the turning points in Parabolic Equation (PE) models, and "deep seafloor arrivals", which appear dominantly on the Ocean Bottom Seismometer (OBS) but are either very weak or absent on the deepest element in the DVLA and do not coincide with turning points in the PE model (some of these OBS late arrivals occur after the finale region), 4) the role of surface-reflected bottomreflected (SRBR) paths in explaining the late arriving energy, and 5) generally reconciling the OBS analysis with work by other North Pacific Acoustic Laboratory (NPAL) investigators and Dushaw et al (1999).
  • Article
    Zonal jets as transport barriers in planetary atmospheres
    (American Meteorological Society, 2008-10) Beron-Vera, F. J. ; Brown, Michael G. ; Olascoaga, M. J. ; Rypina, Irina I. ; Kocak, Huseyin ; Udovydchenkov, Ilya A.
    The connection between transport barriers and potential vorticity (PV) barriers in PV-conserving flows is investigated with a focus on zonal jets in planetary atmospheres. A perturbed PV staircase model is used to illustrate important concepts. This flow consists of a sequence of narrow eastward and broad westward zonal jets with a staircase PV structure; the PV steps are at the latitudes of the cores of the eastward jets. Numerically simulated solutions to the quasigeostrophic PV conservation equation in a perturbed PV staircase flow are presented. These simulations reveal that both eastward and westward zonal jets serve as robust meridional transport barriers. The surprise is that westward jets, across which the background PV gradient vanishes, serve as robust transport barriers. A theoretical explanation of the underlying barrier mechanism is provided. It is argued that transport barriers near the cores of westward zonal jets, across which the background PV gradient is small, are found in Jupiter’s midlatitude weather layer and in the earth’s summer hemisphere subtropical stratosphere.