Jones S. D.

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Jones
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S. D.
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  • Article
    Global carbon budget 2013
    (Copernicus Publications., 2014-06-17) Le Quere, Corinne ; Peters, Glen P. ; Andres, Robert J. ; Andrew, Robbie M. ; Boden, Thomas A. ; Ciais, Philippe ; Friedlingstein, Pierre ; Houghton, Richard A. ; Marland, G. ; Moriarty, Roisin ; Sitch, Stephen ; Tans, Pieter P. ; Arneth, Almut ; Arvanitis, A. ; Bakker, Dorothee C. E. ; Bopp, Laurent ; Canadell, Josep G. ; Chini, Louise Parsons ; Doney, Scott C. ; Harper, Anna B. ; Harris, Ian ; House, Jo I. ; Jain, Atul K. ; Jones, S. D. ; Kato, Etsushi ; Keeling, Ralph F. ; Klein Goldewijk, Kees ; Kortzinger, A. ; Koven, Charles ; Lefevre, N. ; Maignan, F. ; Omar, A. ; Ono, Tsuneo ; Park, Geun-Ha ; Pfeil, Benjamin ; Poulter, Benjamin ; Raupach, Michael R. ; Regnier, P. ; Rodenbeck, C. ; Saito, Shu ; Schwinger, Jorg ; Segschneider, J. ; Stocker, Benjamin D. ; Takahashi, Taro ; Tilbrook, Bronte ; van Heuven, Steven ; Viovy, Nicolas ; Wanninkhof, Rik ; Wiltshire, Andrew J. ; Zaehle, Sonke
    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates, consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil-fuel combustion and cement production (EFF) are based on energy statistics, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated for the first time in this budget with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO2 and land cover change (some including nitrogen–carbon interactions). All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global carbon budget. For the last decade available (2003–2012), EFF was 8.6 ± 0.4 GtC yr−1, ELUC 0.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr−1, GATM 4.3 ± 0.1 GtC yr−1, SOCEAN 2.5 ± 0.5 GtC yr−1, and SLAND 2.8 ± 0.8 GtC yr−1. For year 2012 alone, EFF grew to 9.7 ± 0.5 GtC yr−1, 2.2% above 2011, reflecting a continued growing trend in these emissions, GATM was 5.1 ± 0.2 GtC yr−1, SOCEAN was 2.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr−1, and assuming an ELUC of 1.0 ± 0.5 GtC yr−1 (based on the 2001–2010 average), SLAND was 2.7 ± 0.9 GtC yr−1. GATM was high in 2012 compared to the 2003–2012 average, almost entirely reflecting the high EFF. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration reached 392.52 ± 0.10 ppm averaged over 2012. We estimate that EFF will increase by 2.1% (1.1–3.1%) to 9.9 ± 0.5 GtC in 2013, 61% above emissions in 1990, based on projections of world gross domestic product and recent changes in the carbon intensity of the economy. With this projection, cumulative emissions of CO2 will reach about 535 ± 55 GtC for 1870–2013, about 70% from EFF (390 ± 20 GtC) and 30% from ELUC (145 ± 50 GtC).
  • Article
    Recent trends and drivers of regional sources and sinks of carbon dioxide
    (Copernicus Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union, 2015-02-02) Sitch, Stephen ; Friedlingstein, Pierre ; Gruber, Nicolas ; Jones, S. D. ; Murray-Tortarolo, G. ; Ahlstrom, Andreas P. ; Doney, Scott C. ; Graven, Heather ; Heinze, Christoph ; Huntingford, Chris ; Levis, Samuel ; Levy, Peter E. ; Lomas, Mark ; Poulter, Benjamin ; Viovy, Nicolas ; Zaehle, Sonke ; Zeng, Ning ; Arneth, Almut ; Bonan, Gordon B. ; Bopp, Laurent ; Canadell, Josep G. ; Chevallier, Frédéric ; Ciais, Philippe ; Ellis, Richard ; Gloor, Emanuel ; Peylin, Philippe ; Piao, S. L. ; Le Quere, Corinne ; Smith, Benjamin ; Zhu, Zaichun ; Myneni, Ranga
    The land and ocean absorb on average just over half of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) every year. These CO2 "sinks" are modulated by climate change and variability. Here we use a suite of nine dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) and four ocean biogeochemical general circulation models (OBGCMs) to estimate trends driven by global and regional climate and atmospheric CO2 in land and oceanic CO2 exchanges with the atmosphere over the period 1990–2009, to attribute these trends to underlying processes in the models, and to quantify the uncertainty and level of inter-model agreement. The models were forced with reconstructed climate fields and observed global atmospheric CO2; land use and land cover changes are not included for the DGVMs. Over the period 1990–2009, the DGVMs simulate a mean global land carbon sink of −2.4 ± 0.7 Pg C yr−1 with a small significant trend of −0.06 ± 0.03 Pg C yr−2 (increasing sink). Over the more limited period 1990–2004, the ocean models simulate a mean ocean sink of −2.2 ± 0.2 Pg C yr−1 with a trend in the net C uptake that is indistinguishable from zero (−0.01 ± 0.02 Pg C yr−2). The two ocean models that extended the simulations until 2009 suggest a slightly stronger, but still small, trend of −0.02 ± 0.01 Pg C yr−2. Trends from land and ocean models compare favourably to the land greenness trends from remote sensing, atmospheric inversion results, and the residual land sink required to close the global carbon budget. Trends in the land sink are driven by increasing net primary production (NPP), whose statistically significant trend of 0.22 ± 0.08 Pg C yr−2 exceeds a significant trend in heterotrophic respiration of 0.16 ± 0.05 Pg C yr−2 – primarily as a consequence of widespread CO2 fertilisation of plant production. Most of the land-based trend in simulated net carbon uptake originates from natural ecosystems in the tropics (−0.04 ± 0.01 Pg C yr−2), with almost no trend over the northern land region, where recent warming and reduced rainfall offsets the positive impact of elevated atmospheric CO2 and changes in growing season length on carbon storage. The small uptake trend in the ocean models emerges because climate variability and change, and in particular increasing sea surface temperatures, tend to counter\-act the trend in ocean uptake driven by the increase in atmospheric CO2. Large uncertainty remains in the magnitude and sign of modelled carbon trends in several regions, as well as regarding the influence of land use and land cover changes on regional trends.
  • Article
    Global carbon budget 2014
    (Copernicus Publications, 2015-05-08) Le Quere, Corinne ; Moriarty, Roisin ; Andrew, Robbie M. ; Peters, Glen P. ; Ciais, Philippe ; Friedlingstein, Pierre ; Jones, S. D. ; Sitch, Stephen ; Tans, Pieter P. ; Arneth, Almut ; Boden, Thomas A. ; Bopp, Laurent ; Bozec, Yann ; Canadell, Josep G. ; Chini, Louise Parsons ; Chevallier, Frédéric ; Cosca, Catherine E. ; Harris, Ian ; Hoppema, Mario ; Houghton, Richard A. ; House, Jo I. ; Jain, Atul K. ; Johannessen, T. ; Kato, Etsushi ; Keeling, Ralph F. ; Kitidis, Vassilis ; Klein Goldewijk, Kees ; Koven, Charles ; Landa, C. S. ; Landschutzer, Peter ; Lenton, Andrew ; Lima, Ivan D. ; Marland, G. ; Mathis, Jeremy T. ; Metzl, Nicolas ; Nojiri, Yukihiro ; Olsen, Are ; Ono, Tsuneo ; Peng, S. ; Peters, W. ; Pfeil, Benjamin ; Poulter, Benjamin ; Raupach, Michael R. ; Regnier, P. ; Rodenbeck, C. ; Saito, Shu ; Salisbury, Joseph E. ; Schuster, Ute ; Schwinger, Jorg ; Seferian, Roland ; Segschneider, J. ; Steinhoff, Tobias ; Stocker, Benjamin D. ; Sutton, Adrienne J. ; Takahashi, Taro ; Tilbrook, Bronte ; van der Werf, Guido R. ; Viovy, Nicolas ; Wang, Y.-P. ; Wanninkhof, Rik ; Wiltshire, Andrew J. ; Zeng, Ning
    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates, consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, respectively, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover-change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO2, and land-cover-change (some including nitrogen–carbon interactions). We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global carbon budget. For the last decade available (2004–2013), EFF was 8.9 ± 0.4 GtC yr−1, ELUC 0.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr−1, GATM 4.3 ± 0.1 GtC yr−1, SOCEAN 2.6 ± 0.5 GtC yr−1, and SLAND 2.9 ± 0.8 GtC yr−1. For year 2013 alone, EFF grew to 9.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr−1, 2.3% above 2012, continuing the growth trend in these emissions, ELUC was 0.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr−1, GATM was 5.4 ± 0.2 GtC yr−1, SOCEAN was 2.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr−1, and SLAND was 2.5 ± 0.9 GtC yr−1. GATM was high in 2013, reflecting a steady increase in EFF and smaller and opposite changes between SOCEAN and SLAND compared to the past decade (2004–2013). The global atmospheric CO2 concentration reached 395.31 ± 0.10 ppm averaged over 2013. We estimate that EFF will increase by 2.5% (1.3–3.5%) to 10.1 ± 0.6 GtC in 2014 (37.0 ± 2.2 GtCO2 yr−1), 65% above emissions in 1990, based on projections of world gross domestic product and recent changes in the carbon intensity of the global economy. From this projection of EFF and assumed constant ELUC for 2014, cumulative emissions of CO2 will reach about 545 ± 55 GtC (2000 ± 200 GtCO2) for 1870–2014, about 75% from EFF and 25% from ELUC. This paper documents changes in the methods and data sets used in this new carbon budget compared with previous publications of this living data set (Le Quéré et al., 2013, 2014). All observations presented here can be downloaded from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (doi:10.3334/CDIAC/GCP_2014).